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Boatswain's mate (United States Navy)

United States Navy rating

Boatswain's Mate
Rating Badge BM.jpg

Rating insignia

Issued byUnited States Navy
TypeEnlisted rating
AbbreviationBM
SpecialtyDeck

The United States Navy occupational rating of boatswain's mate (abbreviated as BM) is a designation given by the Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS) to enlisted members who were rated or "striking" for the rating as a deck seaman. The colloquial form of address for a boatswain's mate is "Boats".

The rating of Boatswain's Mate dates from the American Revolutionary War and was one of the oldest U.S. Navy ratings in continuous existence from 1775 to present. For a period of three months at the end of 2016, the rating (along with all ratings in the Navy) was scheduled for elimination, but the proposed change was unpopular with both sailors and Navy veterans and was reversed in December of that year.[1]

Duties[edit]

Boatswain's mates train, direct, and supervise personnel in ship's maintenance duties in all activities relating to marlinspike, deck, boat seamanship, painting, upkeep of ship's external structure, rigging, deck equipment, and boats.[3] Boatswain's mates take charge of working parties; perform seamanship tasks; act as petty officer-in-charge of picketboats, self-propelled barges, tugs, and other yard and district craft.[3] They serve in, or take charge of damage control parties.[3] BMs also operate and maintain equipment used in loading and unloading cargo, ammunition, fuel, and general stores.[3] BMs take charge of and supervise UNREP (Underway Replenishment) procedures and equipment. They are integral to ship's navigation and serve as ship's Helmsman and the ship's Lee Helmsman. In addition they also serve as RHIB (rigid-hulled inflatable boat) coxswains.

Boatswain's mates enjoy a normal path of advancement to Chief Warrant Officer and limited duty officer.[3] Candidates must have normal color perception, and no speech impediment.[3] Candidates need not meet any special citizenship or security requirements.[3]

Boatswain's mates also stand watch on ship's bridges, passing information relating to routine and special activities to the crew with the distinctive boatswain's call or boatswain's pipe.[4] On the ancient row-galleys, the boatswain used his pipe to "call the stroke".[5] Later, because its shrill tune could be heard above most of the activity on board, it was used to signal various happenings such as pipe down, and the Side or Away Galley (the boarding or debarking of officials).[5] So essential was this signaling device to the well-being of the ship, that it became a badge of office and honor in the British and U.S. navies.[5]

Boatswain's mates duties cover a large spectrum and range widely depending on the capacity and mission of the vessel or shore installation to which BMs are assigned. They act as landing signalmen enlisted (LSE, guiding helicopters to the designated flight deck of a ship) on air-capable ships. They act as or supervise lookouts of Navy ships, searching the sea for enemy vessels and hazards to navigation. They conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) operations and can respond to other military and civilian ships that request assistance. Ashore, they provide armed security for either their assigned vessel or for their assigned Naval installation.

Boatswains' mates are also a source rating for the Navy's mobile amphibious community. These duties include assault boat coxswain and Craftmaster, navigating specialized assault or working vessels during amphibious operations, salvage work, or inshore work. They are also a recognized source rating for the U.S. Navy's Special Warfare and Special Operations communities. Should a Boatswain's Mate meet eligibility requirements, he can elect to become an SO (formerly SEAL), SB (formerly SWCC), ND (Navy Diver), or EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technician).

  • Note: The Boatswain's mate is said to be one of the four oldest professions in the U.S Navy, along with Quartermasters (responsible for safe navigation, shiphandling, and chart/record maintenance), Gunner's Mates (responsible for maintenance and operation of gunnery equipment and associated systems) and Masters-at-Arms (responsible for maintaining order and enforcing regulations among a ship's crew or the complement of a shore installation).

Ship's boatswain[edit]

In the U.S. Navy the ship's boatswain is a petty officer who assists the first lieutenant by supervising the deck force in the execution of major seamanship functions and the maintenance of topside gear.[6] The ship's boatswain supervises cargo handling[6] and inspects and maintains rigging and deck gear.[6] His duties also include supervising anchoring, mooring, fueling, towing, transferring of personnel and cargo, and the operation and maintenance of ship's boats.[6] The ship's boatswain is in charge of what the Navy deems "unusual" seamanship operations such as retrieving target drones,[6] and also schedules training for deck division personnel.[6] Another key duty of the ships' boatswain is supervision of the maintenance of abandon-ship equipment and instruction in abandon-ship techniques.[6]

Background[edit]

Boatswain's mates prepare for an "anchor drop test" aboard the USS George H.W. Bush to check the operability of the ship's anchor.
Boatswain's mate guiding an LCAC.
Boatswain’s Mate 1st Class pipes arrival honors

The word boatswain has existed in one form or another longer than Modern English has (Modern English only dates back to the beginning of the Renaissance).[7] It is derived from late Old Englishbatswegen, from bat ("boat") + Old Norsesveinn ("swain"), meaning a young man, a follower, retainer, or servant.[7] Various phonetic spellings (such as "bosun" and "Bos'n") have also been in use through the centuries.

Originally, on board sailing ships the boatswain was in charge of a ship's anchors, cordage, colors, deck crew, and the ship's boats.[8] The boatswain would also be in charge of the rigging while the ship was in dock.[8] The boatswain's technical tasks have been modernized with the advent of steam engines and subsequent mechanisation.[8]

Origins in the Royal Navy[edit]

The rank of boatswain was until recently the oldest active rank in Great Britain's Royal Navy,[9] and its origins can be traced back to the year 1040.[9] The Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990.[9]

In 1040 when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they also furnished crews whose officers were the master, boatswain, carpenter and cook.[10] Later these officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty.[10] They maintained and sailed the ships and were the standing officers of the navy.[10] Soldiers commanded by captains would be on board the ships to do the fighting, but they had nothing to do with sailing the ships.[10] The word "soldiering" came about as a seaman's term of contempt for the soldiers and anyone else who avoided shipboard duties.[10]

The warranted officers were often the permanent members of the ships' companies.[10] They stayed with the ships in port between voyages as caretakers, supervising repairs and refitting.[10] Other crewmen and soldiers might change with each voyage.[10] Early in the fourteenth century, the purser joined the warrant officers.[10] He was originally "the clerk of burser."[10] During the following centuries the gunner, surgeon, chaplain, master-at-arms, schoolmaster and others signed on.[10]

In the Royal Navy the task of disciplining the crew fell to the quartermasters and quartermaster's mates.[citation needed] This was done using a rattan boatswain's cane on the boys and a rope's end on adult sailors.[citation needed] Punishment could lawfully be inflicted on an officer's instruction or at his own will, or more formally on deck on the captain's or a court martial's orders.[citation needed]Birching or use of the cat o' nine tails would have been typical in the latter case.[citation needed] In a large crew he could delegate this to the boatswain's mates, who might alternate after each dozen lashes.[citation needed]

Notable boatswain's mates[edit]

A number of boatswain's mates have achieved notable careers in the military. Carl Brashear, the first black American master diver, whose life was the inspiration for the movie Men of Honor, retired as a master chief boatswain's mate. James E. Williams a Medal of Honor recipient, also known as the most decorated enlisted sailor in U.S. Navy history for his actions during the Vietnam War, Reuben James and William Wiley famous for their heroism in the Barbary Wars and namesakes of the ships USS Reuben James and USS Wiley were all U.S. Navy boatswain's mates.[11][12]Cesar Romero achieved the rating of chief boatswain's mate aboard the Coast Guard manned assault transport USS Cavalier. Medal of Honor recipients Francis P. Hammerberg,[13] and George Robert Cholister[14] were U.S. Navy boatswain's mates, as was Navy Cross recipient Stephen Bass.[15]USS James E. Williams is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, named for BM1 James E. Williams, who was awarded the Medal of Honor while serving in the "brown-water navy" in Vietnam. In 1958 BMCM Sherman Byrd became the first African-American explosive ordnance disposal technician. Don Shipley began his United States Navy career as a Boatswain's Mate in 1978 before going on to become a SEAL in 1984.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boatswain%27s_mate_(United_States_Navy)
Boatswain's mate
Rating Badge BM.jpg
Rating insignia
Issued by: United States Navy
Type Enlisted rating
Abbreviation BM
Specialty Deck

The United States Navy occupational rating of boatswain's mate (abbreviated as BM) is a designation given by the Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS) to enlisted members who are rated or "striking" for the rating as a deck seaman. The colloquial form of address for a boatswain's mate is 'Boats'. The rating of Boatswain's Mate dates from the American Revolutionary War and is one of the oldest U.S. Navy rates still in continuous existence.

Job description[]

Boatswain's mates train, direct, and supervise personnel in ship's maintenance duties in all activities relating to marlinspike, deck, boat seamanship, painting, upkeep of ship's external structure, rigging, deck equipment, and boats.[2] Boatswain's mates take charge of working parties; perform seamanship tasks; act as petty officer-in-charge of picketboats, self-propelled barges, tugs, and other yard and district craft.[2] They serve in, or take charge of damage control parties.[2] BM's also operate and maintain equipment used in loading and unloading cargo, ammunition, fuel, and general stores.[2] BMs take charge of and supervise UNREP (Underway Replenishment) procedures and equipment. They are integral to ship's navigation and serve as ship's Helmsman and the ship's Lee Helmsman. In addition they also serve as RHIB (Rigid-hulled inflatable boat) coxswains.

Boatswain's mates enjoy a normal path of advancement to Chief Warrant Officer and Limited Duty Officer.[2] Candidates must have normal color perception, and no speech impediment.[2] Candidates need not meet any special citizenship or security requirements.[2]

Boatswain's mates also stand watch on ship's bridges, passing information relating to routine and special activities to the crew with the distinctive boatswain's call or boatswain's pipe.[3] On the ancient row-galleys, the boatswain used his pipe to "call the stroke."[4] Later, because its shrill tune could be heard above most of the activity on board, it was used to signal various happenings such as knock-off and the boarding of officials.[4] So essential was this signaling device to the well-being of the ship, that it became a badge of office and honor in the British and American Navies.[4]

Boatswain's mates duties cover a large spectrum and range widely depending on the capacity and mission of the vessel or shore installation to which BMs are assigned. They act as landing signalmen enlisted (LSE, guiding helicopters to the designated flight deck of a ship) on air-capable ships. They act as or supervise lookouts of Navy ships, searching the sea for enemy vessels and hazards to navigation. They conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) operations and can respond to other military and civilian ships that request assistance. Ashore, they provide armed security for either their assigned vessel or for their assigned Naval installation.

Boatswains' mates are also a source rating for the Navy's mobile amphibious community. These duties include assault boat coxswain and Craftmaster, navigating specialized assault or working vessels during amphibious operations, salvage work, or inshore work. They are also a recognized source rating for the U.S. Navy's Special Warfare and Special Operations communities. Should a Boatswain's Mate meet eligibility requirements, he can elect to become an SO (formerly SEAL), SB (formerly SWCC), an ND (Navy Diver), or EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technician). ND and EOD are currently the only special communities open to both men and women.

  • Note: The Boatswain's mate is said to be one of the three oldest professions in the U.S Navy, along with Quartermasters (responsible for safe navigation, shiphandling, and chart/record maintenance), and Masters-at-Arms (responsible for maintaining order and enforcing regulations among a ship's crew or the complement of a shore installation).

Ship's boatswain[]

In the U.S. Navy the ship's boatswain is an officer who assists the first lieutenant by supervising the deck force in the execution of major seamanship functions and the maintenance of topside gear.[5] The ship's boatswain supervises cargo handling[5] and inspects and maintains rigging and deck gear.[5] His duties also include supervising anchoring, mooring, fueling, towing, transferring of personnel and cargo, and the operation and maintenance of ship's boats.[5] The ship's boatswain is in charge of what the Navy deems "unusual" seamanship operations such as retrieving target drones,[5] and also schedules training for deck division personnel.[5] Another key duty of the ships' boatswain is supervision of the maintenance of abandon-ship equipment and instruction in abandon-ship techniques.[5]

Background[]

The word boatswain has been around in one form or another longer than Modern English has (Modern English only dates back to the beginning of the Renaissance).[6] It is derived from late Old English batswegen, from bat ("boat") + Old Norse sveinn ("swain"), meaning a young man, a follower, retainer or servant.[6] Various phonetic spellings (such as "bosun" and "Bos'n") have also been in use through the centuries. Originally, on board sailing ships the boatswain was in charge of a ship's anchors, cordage, colors, deck crew and the ship's boats.[7] The boatswain would also be in charge of the rigging while the ship was in dock.[7] The boatswain's technical tasks have been modernized with the advent of steam engines and subsequent mechanisation.[7]

Origins in the Royal Navy[]

The rank of boatswain was until recently the oldest active rank in Great Britain's Royal Navy,[8] and its origins can be traced back to the year 1040.[8] The Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990.[8]

In 1040 when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they also furnished crews whose officers were the master, boatswain, carpenter and cook.[9] Later these officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty.[9] They maintained and sailed the ships and were the standing officers of the navy.[9] Soldiers commanded by captains would be on board the ships to do the fighting, but they had nothing to do with sailing the ships.[9] The word "soldiering" came about as a seaman's term of contempt for the soldiers and anyone else who avoided shipboard duties.[9]

The warranted officers were often the permanent members of the ships' companies.[9] They stayed with the ships in port between voyages as caretakers, supervising repairs and refitting.[9] Other crewmen and soldiers might change with each voyage.[9] Early in the Fourteenth Century, the Purser joined the warrant officers.[9] He was originally "the clerk of burser."[9] During the following centuries the gunner, surgeon, chaplain, master-at-arms, schoolmaster and others signed on.[9]

In the Royal Navy the task of disciplining the crew fell to the quartermasters and quartermaster's mates.[citation needed] This was done using a rattan boatswain's cane on the boys and a rope's end on adult sailors.[citation needed] Punishment could lawfully be inflicted on an officer's instruction or at his own will, or more formally on deck on the captain's or a court martial's orders.[citation needed]Birching or use of the cat o' nine tails would have been typical in the latter case.[citation needed] In a large crew he could delegate this to the boatswain's mates, who might alternate after each dozen lashes.[citation needed]

Notable boatswains[]

A number of boatswains mates have achieved notable careers in the military. Carl Brashear, the first black American Master Diver, and whose life was the inspiration for the movie Men of Honor, retired as a master chief boatswain's mate. Reuben James and William Wiley famous for their heroism in the Barbary Wars and namesakes of the ships USS Reuben James (FFG-57) and USS Wiley (DD-57) were U.S. Navy boatswain's mates.[10][11]Medal of Honor recipients Francis P. Hammerberg,[12] and George Robert Cholister[13] were U.S. Navy boatswain's mates, as was Navy Cross recipient Stephen Bass.[14]USS James E. Williams (DDG-95) is an Arleigh Burke class destroyer, named for BM1 James E. Williams who was awarded the Medal of Honor while serving in the "brown-water navy" in Vietnam. In 1958 BMCM Sherman Byrd became the first African American Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technician.

Notes[]

See also[]

References[]

  • United States Naval Institute (1996) [1902]. The Bluejackets' Manual (21st ed. ed.). Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute. ISBN 1-55750-050-9. 

External links[]

Sours: https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Boatswain%27s_mate_(United_States_Navy)
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List of United States Navy ratings

Insignia General rating Abbreviation Service rating Abbreviation
Rating Badge BM.jpg
Boatswain's mateBM Boatswain's mates train and supervise personnel in all activities relating to marlinspike, deck, and boat seamanship, and oversee the maintenance of the ship's external structure and deck equipment. They act as petty officers in charge of small craft and may perform duties as master-at-arms, serve in or take charge of gun crews, and damage control parties.

Boatswain's mates are also responsible for the "deck side" watch. In port, three of the crew are on deck watch 24/7 (in hazardous areas such as war zones there are more than three, depending on ship's size). They are the Officer of the Deck, Boatswain's Mate of the watch, and Messenger of the Watch (usually a Seaman or Seaman Apprentice). They are stationed very close to the gangway and monitor all the comings and goings of persons to and from the ship. At sea the boatswain's mate of the watch is within ear shot of the conning officer (on the bridge). The boatswain's mate of the watch supervises the rest of the enlisted watch standers on deck. They include helmsman, messenger of the watch, and all the look outs. In port or at sea the boatswain's mate of the watch is charged with the responsibility of making all announcements to the crew; everything from chow call to general quarters (battle stations).[15]

Rating Badge CS.jpgCulinary specialistCS (Surface)

(Subsurface)

CS

CSS

Culinary specialists prepare menus and order food items. They operate galley and dining facilities, manage large facilities, keep records for food supplies and financial budgets, and can even serve as flight attendant aircrewmen. They can also serve as a personal food service specialist, household/estate manager or chef for an admiral, the First Family, President of the United States at Camp David and the White House, to the Vice President at Number One Observatory Circle or for a commanding officer aboard ship or at shore bases. Ashore, Culinary Specialists often manage and maintain clubs, TAD hotels and Permanent Party naval barracks.[19]Rating Badge CT.jpgCryptologic technicianCT[I](Interpretive)
(Maintenance)
(Networks)
(Collection)
(Technical) CTI
CTM
CTN
CTR
CTT Cryptologic technicians control the flow of messages and information and also conduct electronic warfare. Their work depends on their specific branch: CTAs or administration cryptologic technicians perform administrative and clerical duties that control access to classified material. CTIs or interpretive cryptologic technicians handle radiotelephone communications and foreign language translation. CTMs or maintenance cryptologic technicians maintain electronic and electromechanical equipment. CTNs or networking cryptologic technicians handle computer communication. CTRs or collection cryptologic technicians handle all Morse code communications and operate radio direction-finding equipment. Finally, CTTs or technical cryptologic technicians deal with electronic warfare. CTTs are the first line of defense against inbound threats and anti-ship missiles. They also collect, analyze, and provide electronic intelligence support to commands throughout the world.[15]Rating Badge EOD.jpgExplosive ordnance disposalEOD Explosive ordnance disposal technicians locate, identify, render safe and dispose of all forms of ordnance (conventional, nuclear, chemical, biological, military, and improvised) both U.S. and foreign made. Parachute or helicopter insertion and deep-sea diving capabilities are sometimes necessary to perform this mission. In addition to working closely with other military services, EOD technicians occasionally assist civilian law enforcement agencies.[20]Rating Badge ET.jpgElectronics technicianET Surface
Nuclear Power
Submarine, Navigation
Submarine, Communications ET
ETN [21]
ETV [21]
ETR [21]Electronics technicians are responsible for electronic equipment used to send and receive messages, detect enemy planes and ships, and determine target distances. They maintain, repair, and calibrate all electronic equipment used for communications, detection tracking, identification, and navigation. Specially qualified electronics technicians are employed onboard nuclear-powered ships to operate the nuclear reactor and maintain its control subsystems.[15]Rating Badge FC.jpgFire controlmanFC Conventional

Non-Conventional (Aegis)

FC

FCA

Fire controlmen (FC's) maintain the control mechanism used in weapons systems on combat ships. Complex electronic, electrical and hydraulic equipment is required to ensure the accuracy of Navy guided-missile and surface gunfire-control systems. They are responsible for the operation, routine care and repair of this equipment, which includes radars, computers, weapons direction equipment, target designation systems, gyroscopes and rangefinders.[15] Fire controlman - Aegis (FCA's) maintain the Aegis Combat System, an integrated naval weapons system on the Ticonderoga-class cruiser and the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. Rating Badge FT.jpgFire control technicianFT Fire control technicians maintain the electronic equipment used in submarine weapons systems. They are responsible for the operation and maintenance of the complex electronic, electrical and mechanical equipment required to ensure the accuracy of Navy guided-missile systems and underwater weapons. They are responsible for ship safety by recognizing and analyzing data from several critical systems including sonar, radar, periscope, radio, and torpedo inputs.[15]Rating Badge GM.jpgGunner's mateGM Gunner's mates operate and maintain all gunnery equipment, guided-missile launching systems, rocket launchers, guns, turrets, and associated equipment. They repair electrical, electronic, hydraulic and mechanical systems, and make detailed casualty analysis. They test ammunition, missiles and their ordnance components. GMs train and supervise personnel in the handling and stowage of ammunition, missiles, and assigned ordnance equipment.[15]Rating Badge IS.jpgIntelligence specialistIS Intelligence specialists are involved in collecting and interpreting intelligence especially secret information about enemies or potential enemies. They analyze photographs and prepare charts, maps, and reports that describe in detail the strategic situation all over the world.[15]Rating Badge IT.jpgInformation systems technicianIT (Surface)

(Subsurface)

IT

ITS

Information systems technicians design, install, operate, and maintain state-of-the-art informations systems. This technology includes local and wide area networks, mainframe, mini and microcomputer systems and associated peripheral devices. They also write programs to handle the collection, manipulation and distribution of data for a wide variety of applications and requirements. They perform the functions of a computer system analyst, operate telecommunications systems including automated networks and the full spectrum of data links and circuits.[22]Rating Badge LN.jpgLegalmanLN Legalmen are the Navy's paralegals. They assist Staff Judge Advocates in the proper administration of military justice and administrative law, such as courts-martial, nonjudicial punishment, and administrative separation. They work in Region Legal Service Offices (RLSO), Defense Service Offices, aboard aircraft carriers and large amphibious ships, and at various independent duty locations. Legalmen assist service members, retirees, and their family members with powers of attorney, wills, tax returns, voter registration procedures, immigration and customs regulations, Social Security regulations, and veterans' benefits.[15]Rating Badge SK.jpgLogistics specialistLS (Surface)

(Subsurface)

LS

LSS

Logistics specialists manage inventories and issuance of repair parts/general supplies and specialized supplies (e.g., personal flight gear for naval aircrews or specialized combat equipment for Navy SEALs or Naval Military Construction Battalion "Seabees"), as well as distribute mail for naval ships, submarines, aviation squadrons, and shore-based activities. They procure, receive, store and issue material and repair selected components. They utilize financial accounting and database systems to perform inventory and financial management functions. Additionally, they sort and distribute all official and personal mail, manage money order and stamp inventories, and maintain financial and inventory reports.[15]Rating Badge MA.jpgMaster-at-armsMA Masters-at-arms uphold law and order aboard ships, shore stations, control access to naval installations, and deploy overseas with expeditionary forces and squadrons performing antiterrorism/force protection (AT/FP) duties. The basic duty of an MA is to enforce rules and regulations, maintain good order and discipline, and protect life and property. Some other duties include conducting criminal investigations, personal protective services, take part in correctional and rehabilitative programs, military working dog (MWD) handlers, small arms instruction, lethal and non-lethal weapons training, and organize and train sailors assigned to shore patrol police duty. Their equivalents in the civilian world are detectives, security guards, and policemen.[15]Rating Badge MC.jpgMass communication specialistMC Mass communication specialists are public affairs and visual information experts. They present the U.S. Navy story to audiences in the Navy and to the rest of the world through a variety of media. Mass communication specialists write and produce print and broadcast journalism, news, and feature stories for military and civilian newspapers, magazines, television and radio broadcast stations. They record still and video photography of military operations, exercises, and other Navy events.[15]Rating Badge MN.jpgMinemanMN Minemen test, maintain, and repair mines and their components. They are responsible for assembling, testing, and delivering mines to the planting agent. They maintain minehandling and minelaying equipment.[15] At sea, minemen primarily man Avenger Class mine countermeasures ships as well the new Independence Class littoral combat ships as a part of the MCM module. Their duties at sea include but are not limited to: operating mine hunting sonar, operating remote controlled submersibles in prosecuting mine-like contacts, rigging and deploying minesweeping gear as well as standing normal underway deck and combat information center watches.[23]Rating Badge MT.jpgMissile technicianMT Missile technicians operate and maintain the UGM-133 Trident II D5 missile Strategic Weapon System (SWS) carried aboard ballistic missile submarines and at strategic weapons facilities. Missile technicians operate and maintain electronic, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic strategic weapon subsystems, test and operate the MK98 fire-control system and MK 6 guidance system, perform classified targeting operations, and provide physical security to nuclear weapon systems.[15]Rating Badge MU.jpgMusicianMU Musicians play in official Navy bands and special groups such as jazz bands, dance bands and small ensembles. They give concerts and provide music for military ceremonies, religious services, parades, receptions and dances. Official unit bands usually do not include stringed instruments, but each musician must be able to play at least one brass, woodwind or percussion instrument. Sailors are selected for this rating through auditions.[15]Rating Badge NC.jpgNavy counselorNC (Career)
(Recruiter) NC(C)
NC(R) Navy counselors offer vocational guidance to Navy personnel — individually and in groups — aboard ships and at shore facilities. They assess the interests, aptitudes, abilities and personalities of individuals and assist them in reaching their full potential. They are responsible directly to the command triumvirate (CO, XO, CMC) and report on many items such as retention, attrition, advancement, testing and various other facets of the career development program. Additionally, it is their keen eye and attention to detail that ensure personnel throughout the command are updated on current Navy policies in regards to career management, off duty education and administrative procedures, among various other responsibilities.[15]Rating Badge OS.jpgOperations specialistOS Operations specialists operate radar, navigation and communications equipment in the shipboard combat information centers (CICs) or bridges. They detect and track ships, planes, and missiles. They operate and maintain identification friend or foe (IFF) systems, electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment and radio-telephones.[15] They control and assist aircraft. Rating Badge PN.jpgPersonnel specialistPS Personnel specialists provide enlisted personnel with information and counseling about Navy jobs, opportunities for general education and training, and promotion requirements. They assist enlisted members' families with legal aid or reassignments in hardship situations. Personnel Specialists keep records up to date, prepare reports, type letters and maintain files.[15]Rating Badge QM.jpgQuartermasterQM[III]Quartermasters assist the navigator and officer of the deck (OOD), steer the ship, take radar bearings and ranges, make depth soundings and celestial observations, plot courses and command small craft.[15]Rating Badge RP.jpgReligious program specialistRP Religious program specialists assist Navy chaplains with administrative and budgetary tasks. They serve as custodians of chapel funds, keep religious documents and stay in contact with religious and community agencies. They prepare devotional and religious educational materials, set up volunteer programs, operate shipboard libraries, supervise chaplains' offices and perform administrative, clerical and secretarial duties. They train personnel in religious programs and publicize religious activities.[15]Rating Badge SH.jpgRetail Services SpecialistRS Retail Services Specialists manage barber shops, tailor shops, ships' uniform stores, laundries, dry cleaning plants and cobbler shops. They serve as clerks in exchanges, gas stations, warehouses, and commissary stores. Some RSs function as Navy club managers.[24][25]Rating Badge SB.jpgSpecial warfare boat operatorSB Special warfare boat operators (SWCC - special warfare combatant-craft crewmen) drive fast speedboats down narrow, winding rivers, or the open ocean while performing high speed, medium range, or all weather insertion/extraction of special operations forces. They participate in maritime interdiction operations, tactical swimmer operations, intelligence collection, operation deception, and coastal patrol.[26]Rating Badge SO.jpgSpecial warfare operatorSO Special warfare operators are Navy SEALs, which are the Navy's primary unconventional warfare units that conduct warfare at SEa, in the Air, and on Land (SEAL). A SEAL's core skills consist of: sniper, breacher, communicator, maritime/engineering, close air support, driver, navigator (rural/urban/protective security), heavy weapons operator, sensitive site exploitation, air operations (parachuting/helicopter insertion, etc.), climber, interrogator, technical surveillance, and advanced special operations. SEALs oversee ocean-borne mine disposal, carry out direct action raids against military targets, conduct reconnaissance, and secure beachheads for invading amphibious forces.[26]Rating Badge ST.jpgSonar technicianST (Surface)
(Subsurface) STG
STS Sonar technicians are responsible for underwater surveillance. They assist in safe navigation and aid in search and rescue and attack operations. They operate and repair sonar equipment and jam enemy sonars. Sonar Technicians operate, maintain and repair sonar systems, antisubmarine warfarefire control equipment and other various equipment associated with underwater detection, counter-detection, warfare and communications.[15]
Rating Badge YN.jpg
YeomanYN (Surface)

(Subsurface)

YN

YNS

Yeomen perform administrative and clerical work. They deal with visitors, coordinate worldwide travel, submit passport applications, telephone calls and incoming mail, and assist various ships, squadrons, staff commands, and special warfare teams around the world with administrative tasks. They write and type business and social letters, notices, directives, forms and reports.[15]
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_Navy_ratings
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