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We are excited to share a new resource for people in California prisons with 5-year enhancements on their current sentence for prior serious felonies. 

Back to Court: A Resentencing Guide to the Fair and Just Sentencing and Reform Act (SB 1393) and PC § 1170(d)(1)

Descarga la guía completa en español gratis:

De regreso a la corte: Una guía para la resentencia por la Ley de Reforma para una Sentencia Justa (SB 1393) y la § 1170(d)(1) del CP

Watch this video on Getting People Out Of Prison: How to Support People in CDCR In Asking For Release Due to COVID-19. This webinar is a training on how to help people in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation gather paperwork (exhibits), write declarations, and file administrative appeals to request release by order of CDCR, the Governor, state courts, or federal courts due to COVID 19. 

This toolkit is designed to be a specific resource for people impacted by SB 1393, and also a general resource for anyone interested in PC § 1170(d)(1) resentencing.

SB 1393 (Mitchell, Lara – effective January 1, 2019) ended the mandatory requirement that judges add a 5-year sentence enhancement for each prior serious felony on a person’s record, also referred to as a “nickel prior.” While SB 1393 was not retroactive, it is now possible to request a referral for the discretionary resentencing of these enhancements. This toolkit provides information for people serving and/or appealing sentences with 5-year enhancements on how to request resentencing and what to expect in the referral and resentencing process.  

This toolkit also discusses in detail the recently expanded law on discretionary resentencing called PC § 1170(d)(1) – Recall of Sentence and Resentencing. This is an exciting area of law due to the 2018 passage of AB 1812 and AB 2942 (Ting). These new amendments expanded the possibility for post-conviction relief, gave CDCR funding to make resentencing referrals, and gave District Attorneys the ability to make resentencing referrals as of January 1, 2019. 

We hope the information in this Toolkit will help people advocate for themselves for resentencing in a number of contexts. In addition to receiving a PC § 1170(d)(1) referral for resentencing based on 5-year enhancements, it is also possible to be resentenced on the basis of “exceptional conduct” and other sentence enhancements that have been repealed or are now discretionary after recent policy reforms. 

The Toolkit includes an Appendix with some further resources, as well as a Resource List if you would like to request further information to assist you in your self-advocacy.

Please send us your feedback on this Toolkit and your resentencing experiences to:

Ella Baker Center for Human Rights
1419 34th Ave, Suite 202, Oakland, CA 94601

Your loved ones and support network can also reach out to [email protected] with questions or comments.

More information on SB 1393: 

Ella Baker Center members and co-sponsors fought hard to win the passage of SB 1393, a California Senate bill signed into law by Governor Brown in September 2018. Also known as the Fair and Just Sentencing Reform Act of 2018, the bill was co-authored by State Senators Holly Mitchell (Los Angeles) and Ricardo Lara (Long Beach), co-sponsors include ACLU of California, California Coalition for Women Prisoners, Californians United for a Responsible Budget, Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles, Drug Policy Alliance, Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, Friends Committee on Legislation of California, Legal Services for Prisoners with Children, Pillars of the Community, Tides Advocacy, and Women’s Foundation of California. 

Sours: https://ellabakercenter.org/resentencing-guide/

Newly Elected Los Angeles County District Attorney Gascon’s Penal Code section 1170(d)(1) Resentencing Directives - How Escovar Law, APC Evaluates These Cases

AB-2942 was enacted in 2018 and made significant amendments to Penal Code section 1170(d)(1), now permitting district attorney offices across the state of California to recommend the recall of an inmate’s sentence and commitment and resentence the inmate to a recommended shorter term of imprisonment.

Los Angeles County District Attorney George Gascon recently took office on December 8, 2020 and issued “Special Directive 20-14,” which commits to conducting a “comprehensive review of cases where the defendant received a sentence that was inconsistent with the charging and sentencing policies” currently in force and his office will now use its powers under Penal Code section 1170(d)(1) to recommend recall and resentencing in line with the current policies.

According to DA Gascon his office will give priority to the following cases: people who have already served 15 years or more; people who are currently 60 years of age or older; people who are at an enhanced risk of COVID-19 infection; people who have been recommended for resentencing by CDCR; people who are criminalized survivors; and people who were 17 years of age or younger at the time of the offense and were prosecuted as an adult.

Upon being presented with a recommendation per Penal Code section 1170(d)(1), the court then has discretion on whether to recall the previously imposed sentence in exchange for a recommended shorter term of imprisonment. The court resentencing under this division may reduce a defendant’s term of imprisonment if it is in the interests of justice. When making this determination, the court may consider post-conviction factors such as the inmate’s disciplinary record and record of rehabilitation while incarcerated, evidence that reflects whether age, time served, and diminished physical condition, if any, have reduced the inmate’s risk for future violence, and evidence that reflects that circumstances have changed since the inmate’s original sentencing such that the inmate’s continued incarceration is no longer in the interest of justice.

Our office has a specific procedure for evaluating cases seeking Penal Code section 1170(d)(1) resentencing relief. Upon being retained, our office conducts thorough research into the circumstances of the underlying criminal conviction and sentencing. Our office will also request and review the inmate’s “Offender Central File” (“C-File”) from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (“CDCR”) to gain a deeper understanding of the defendant’s post-conviction behavior, disciplinary record, and record of rehabilitation. If relevant, we will also request the offender’s medical records from CDCR.

Using our experience handling post-conviction relief cases and our review of the specific circumstances of the defendant, we will provide our evaluation and recommendation regarding the likelihood of success with obtaining Penal Code section 1170(d)(1) relief. If it appears that the defendant has a strong case for resentencing, we can then proceed with presenting the District Attorney’s Office with mitigating evidence advocating for resentencing pursuant to Penal Code section 1170(d)(1).

Call our office now for more information!


DISCLAIMER:
The information in this blog post (“post”) is provided for general informational purposes only, and may not reflect the current law in your jurisdiction. No information contained in this post should be construed as legal advice from Escovar Law, APC or the individual author, nor is it intended to be a substitute for legal counsel on any subject matter. No reader of this post should act or refrain from acting on the basis of any information included in, or accessible through, this Post without seeking the appropriate legal or other professional advice on the particular facts and circumstances at issue from a lawyer licensed in the recipient’s state, country or other appropriate licensing jurisdiction. The information on this website is a communication and is for informational purposes only. The facts of every case are unique and nothing on this page or on this website should be taken as legal advice for any individual case or situation. The information on this website is not intended to create an attorney-client relationship and viewing of this information does not create an attorney-client relationship. The result portrayed in this advertisement was dependent on the facts of this case. Results will differ if based on different facts.

Categories:Sours: https://www.escovarlaw.com/blog/2020/december/newly-elected-los-angeles-county-district-attorn2/
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How to Successfully Bring a P.C. 1170(d)(1) Petition — A Guide by a Renowned Appeals Attorney

Penal Code 1170(d)(1) authorizes California Courts to recall sentences and resentence defendants to a lesser sentence. In this article, California criminal appeals attorney Matthew Barhoma, founder of Barhoma Law, P.C., provides information on this process, including: 

  1. What is Penal Code § 1170(d)?
  2. What Criteria is Required to Apply?
  3. Commonly Successful Petitions
  4. How an Appeals Attorney Can Help

What is Penal Code § 1170(d)(1) ?

Penal Code § 1170(d)(1) permits a court to recall a sentence and resentence an individual either, (1) upon the court's own motion within 120 days after sentencing the defendant, or (2) at any time upon a recommendation from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) (if in county jail, the county correctional administrator or Sheriff), the Board of Parole Hearings (BPH), [1] or the District Attorney who tried your case. [2] Recall and resentencing under section 1170(d)(1) is also available for individuals whose conviction was secured by way of a guilty or no contest plea.

While any of the agencies listed above can take the initiative to submit a recommendation, an incarcerated individual may also petition the judge within 120 days, or the CDCR - at any time - for review under section 1170(d)(1). An incarcerated individual may also petition the District Attorney, also at any time,  for review under AB 2942 . If the agency accepts the request for review, it may either request recall and resentencing to the sentencing court, or refuse to do so. Should the agency agree to make the request, the court will then decide whether to hear the case. If the court agrees to do so, it will then schedule the case for a recall of sentence hearing. At that hearing, if the court does, in fact, agree to recall the sentence, the matter will then be scheduled for a second hearing solely on the issue of resentencing. However, it is worth noting that even if the case reaches the hearings phase, the court is not mandated to recall or modify the sentence . Having a strong and experienced advocate by your side throughout the process can prove invaluable in successfully reducing you or your loved one's sentence.

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What Criteria is Required to Apply?

Neither the CDCR (or county correctional administrator or Sheriff) nor all District Attorneys' Offices currently have uniform or formal processes for individuals to submit requests for the agency to assess their case for a resentencing recommendation. Further, these agencies are not mandated to respond to all requests they receive; therefore, it is critical to present a complete and persuasive request for review. 

Section 1170(d)(1) recall and resentencing relief is technically available to all persons currently in the custody of the State of California except those individuals who have been sentenced to death. However, certain requirements must typically be met before an entity or individual will agree to recommend recall and resentencing. Generally, recommendations are permitted to be made if doing so would be "in the interests of justice." Further, post-conviction factors may also be considered. These factors include disciplinary records, records of rehabilitation while incarcerated, evidence of a reduced risk of future violence (e.g., age, time served, and diminished physical condition), and evidence of changed circumstances since the original sentencing.

An experienced 1170(d)(1) lawyer can ensure that your request is submitted to the appropriate agency through the proper and most efficient means possible. Using a knowledgable attorney will ensure the greatest chances of success. As an experienced California criminal appeals attorney, Matthew Barhoma of Barhoma Law, P.C. is familiar with procedures at the various institutions and District Attorneys’ Offices around the State and can increase the possibility that your petition for recall and resentencing receives prompt and due consideration. Moreover, when your case is accepted for a recommendation for recall and resentencing, a California criminal appeals attorney will serve as a strong and experienced advocate on your behalf at the subsequent hearings.

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Commonly Successful Petitions

The CDCR (or county correctional administrator) and District Attorney have broad discretion in recommending cases for recall. The most common cases which are recommended for recall include the following facts or circumstances:

Sentencing Discrepancies

Courts aim to have sentencing applied equally across the board to all defendants. Sentencing discrepancies occur when, after you or your loved one's sentencing, other court cases, which are factually similar to your case, have resulted in reduced or significantly different punishments than the one you received.

Most commonly, a recommendation based upon these changes has occurred in certain specific situations where the conviction included great bodily injury enhancements under Penal Code § 12022.7(a-e), [3] gun enhancements under Penal Code § 12022.5(a), [4] life sentences with gang-motivated witness dissuasion under Penal Code §§ 136.1 and 186.22(b)(4)(G), [5] child pornography possession charges under Penal Code § 311.11(a), [6] and consecutive in-prison felony terms under Penal Code § 1170.1(c). [7]

Retroactive Changes in the Law

A retroactive change in law, on the other hand, applies where a new statutory law removes the court’s sentencing discretion in some manner or otherwise mandates that, going forward, the court modifies its sentencing practices. Sometimes these changes are applied retroactively; however, many times, they are not. Even when there is no proscribed retroactive application, relief under 1170(d)(1) or AB 2942 may still be available.

The following recent changes in the law have resulted in recommendations for recall and resentencing based on such non-retroactive changes:

  • the elimination of both one-year prior prison term enhancements (Penal Code § 667.5(b)) and most drug trafficking recidivist enhancements (Health & Safety Code § 11370.2); and
  • the provision of discretion to strike to the court regarding five-year prior serious felony enhancements (Penal Code § 667(a)) and gun use enhancements (Penal Code §§ 12022.5, 12022.53).
Exceptional Conduct

A recommendation based upon exception conduct refers to an individuals' behavior while incarcerated and their programming participation. Where an inmate stands out to correctional facility staff as an outstanding inmate, he or she may be recommended to have his or her case recalled for resentencing. Therefore, the following inmates may be more likely to be recommended for relief: those who have no or very minimal and minor write-ups, those who have used their time in custody to learn new skills and further their education, those who have utilized available preventative programming (such as alcohol and narcotics education and abstinence programs), those who have served as a positive role model or mentor others, and those who have otherwise exhibited behavior indicative of being a productive member of the prison or jail population. Further, having served over ten years and/or at least 50% of a sentence increases the odds of obtaining a recommendation.

Maintaining detailed records of in-custody behavior and accomplishments can help a California criminal appeal attorney compile the strongest petition possible.

Providing Assistance to Law Enforcement

Finally, where an individual has agreed to provide assistance to law enforcement in other criminal cases, he or she will be more likely to be recommended by the District Attorney for recall and resentencing.

Additional Considerations for a Successful Petition

In addition to including arguments similar to those above, commonly successful petitions are rich in both legal analysis and argument, but also include substantial information indicative of rehabilitation and growth of the petitioner. As described below, a knowledgeable attorney can ensure your petition contains both of these critical items.

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How an Appeals Attorney Can Help

An 1170(d)(1) lawyer can assist you in the following: identifying issues applicable to you or your loved one’s petition for recall and resentencing, collecting documentation of relevant and influential post-conviction information, drafting a persuasive petition for sentencing relief, and ensuring the agency receiving the petition gives your request prompt and fair consideration. Upon acceptance of the petition by the relevant agency and then the court, an 1170(d)(1) attorney can argue persuasively on your behalf at your hearing, giving you the greatest chance for successful recall and resentencing hearings.

Barhoma Law, P.C. has significant experience and a track record of success with post-conviction relief efforts, including 1170(d)(1) and AB 2942 petitions. Contact California criminal appeals lawyer Barhoma Law today for a thorough and candid assessment of your case.

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Editing credit to attorney Kelsey Lewis.


[1] The BPH generally defers the authority vested in it under P.C. 1170(d)(1) to the CDCR.

[2] Before January of 2019, District Attorneys were not permitted to make a recommendation under section 1170(d)(1). However, AB 2942 now grants them the authority to review and recommend cases they previously prosecuted for recall and resentencing.

[3] See People v. Cook (2015), 60 Cal.4th 922; People v. Gonzalez (2009) 178 Cal.App.4th 1325.

[4] See People v. Le (2015) Cal.4th 416; People v. Rodriguez (2009), 147 Cal.App.4th 501.

[5] See People v. Lopez (2012) 208 Cal.App.4th 1049.

[6] See People v. Manfredi (2008) 169 Cal.App.4th 622.

[7] See People v. McCart (1982) 32 Cal.3d 338.

Sours: https://www.barhomalaw.com/1170-d.html
AB2942 Resentencing Petitions - Penal Code Section 1170(D)

Policy

The Conviction Review Unit is dedicated to promoting fair and just sentencing practices and correcting excessive sentences. Prosecutors have a duty to seek justice and protect public safety, and that also means ensuring people serving excessive sentences are released from prison.

Penal Code section 1170(d)(1) was recently amended to allow the District Attorney to recommend resentencing when a prison sentence is excessive or no longer serves the interest of justice.

The District Attorney’s Office considers the following factors to decide if it will make resentencing motions:

  • Positive post-conviction conduct, such as a good record of rehabilitation and few, if any, rule violations;
  • Strong reentry plans;
  • Input from the victim; and
  • Evidence that reflects whether age, time served and diminished physical condition have reduced the inmate’s risk for future violence.

The San Francisco District Attorney’s Office carefully evaluates which cases are appropriate for resentencing on a case by case basis. Most cases are identified from within the office. However, the District Attorney’s Office will also consider applications from incarcerated individuals seeking relief. See below for the full process to apply. Note that only San Francisco cases can be reviewed. 

Application process to be considered for 1170(d) resentencing:

  1. Submit this application. Only completed application forms will be reviewed and considered by our office.
  2. The incarcerated person must sign and return this waiver.
  3. A robust reentry plan must be in place

Due to capacity issues, our office will only review fully completed application forms. Letters or other correspondence that are not attached to an application will not be considered.

Due to the high volume of cases we are reviewing, we are not able to provide updates regarding our review process. You will be contacted if we decide to move forward with resentencing.

Sours: https://www.sfdistrictattorney.org/policy/conviction-review/

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ARTICLE 1. Initial Sentencing [1170 - 1170.95]
( Article 1 added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1139. )


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(a) (1) The Legislature finds and declares that the purpose of sentencing is public safety achieved through punishment, rehabilitation, and restorative justice. When a sentence includes incarceration, this purpose is best served by terms that are proportionate to the seriousness of the offense with provision for uniformity in the sentences of offenders committing the same offense under similar circumstances.

(2) The Legislature further finds and declares that programs should be available for inmates, including, but not limited to, educational, rehabilitative, and restorative justice programs that are designed to promote behavior change and to prepare all eligible offenders for successful reentry into the community. The Legislature encourages the development of policies and programs designed to educate and rehabilitate all eligible offenders. In implementing this section, the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is encouraged to allow all eligible inmates the opportunity to enroll in programs that promote successful return to the community. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is directed to establish a mission statement consistent with these principles.

(3) In any case in which the sentence prescribed by statute for a person convicted of a public offense is a term of imprisonment in the state prison or a term pursuant to subdivision (h) of any specification of three time periods, the court shall sentence the defendant to one of the terms of imprisonment specified unless the convicted person is given any other disposition provided by law, including a fine, jail, probation, or the suspension of imposition or execution of sentence or is sentenced pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1168 because they had committed their crime prior to July 1, 1977. In sentencing the convicted person, the court shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council. The court, unless it determines that there are circumstances in mitigation of the sentence prescribed, shall also impose any other term that it is required by law to impose as an additional term. Nothing in this article shall affect any provision of law that imposes the death penalty, that authorizes or restricts the granting of probation or suspending the execution or imposition of sentence, or expressly provides for imprisonment in the state prison for life, except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d). In any case in which the amount of preimprisonment credit under Section 2900.5 or any other law is equal to or exceeds any sentence imposed pursuant to this chapter, except for the remaining portion of mandatory supervision pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (h), the entire sentence shall be deemed to have been served, except for the remaining period of mandatory supervision, and the defendant shall not be actually delivered to the custody of the secretary or to the custody of the county correctional administrator. The court shall advise the defendant that they shall serve an applicable period of parole, postrelease community supervision, or mandatory supervision, and order the defendant to report to the parole or probation office closest to the defendant’s last legal residence, unless the in-custody credits equal the total sentence, including both confinement time and the period of parole, postrelease community supervision, or mandatory supervision. The sentence shall be deemed a separate prior prison term or a sentence of imprisonment in a county jail under subdivision (h) for purposes of Section 667.5, and a copy of the judgment and other necessary documentation shall be forwarded to the secretary.

(b) When a judgment of imprisonment is to be imposed and the statute specifies three possible terms, the choice of the appropriate term shall rest within the sound discretion of the court. At least four days prior to the time set for imposition of judgment, either party or the victim, or the family of the victim if the victim is deceased, may submit a statement in aggravation or mitigation. In determining the appropriate term, the court may consider the record in the case, the probation officer’s report, other reports, including reports received pursuant to Section 1203.03, and statements in aggravation or mitigation submitted by the prosecution, the defendant, or the victim, or the family of the victim if the victim is deceased, and any further evidence introduced at the sentencing hearing. The court shall select the term which, in the court’s discretion, best serves the interests of justice. The court shall set forth on the record the reasons for imposing the term selected and the court may not impose an upper term by using the fact of any enhancement upon which sentence is imposed under any provision of law. A term of imprisonment shall not be specified if imposition of sentence is suspended.

(c) The court shall state the reasons for its sentence choice on the record at the time of sentencing. The court shall also inform the defendant that as part of the sentence after expiration of the term they may be on parole for a period as provided in Section 3000 or 3000.08 or postrelease community supervision for a period as provided in Section 3451.

(d) (1) When a defendant subject to this section or subdivision (b) of Section 1168 has been sentenced to be imprisoned in the state prison or a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h) and has been committed to the custody of the secretary or the county correctional administrator, the court may, within 120 days of the date of commitment on its own motion, or at any time upon the recommendation of the secretary or the Board of Parole Hearings in the case of state prison inmates, the county correctional administrator in the case of county jail inmates, or the district attorney of the county in which the defendant was sentenced, recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and resentence the defendant in the same manner as if they had not previously been sentenced, provided the new sentence, if any, is no greater than the initial sentence. The court resentencing under this subdivision shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council so as to eliminate disparity of sentences and to promote uniformity of sentencing. The court resentencing under this paragraph may reduce a defendant’s term of imprisonment and modify the judgment, including a judgment entered after a plea agreement, if it is in the interest of justice. The court may consider postconviction factors, including, but not limited to, the inmate’s disciplinary record and record of rehabilitation while incarcerated, evidence that reflects whether age, time served, and diminished physical condition, if any, have reduced the inmate’s risk for future violence, and evidence that reflects that circumstances have changed since the inmate’s original sentencing so that the inmate’s continued incarceration is no longer in the interest of justice. Credit shall be given for time served.

(2) (A) (i) When a defendant who was under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole has been incarcerated for at least 15 years, the defendant may submit to the sentencing court a petition for recall and resentencing.

(ii) Notwithstanding clause (i), this paragraph shall not apply to defendants sentenced to life without parole for an offense where it was pled and proved that the defendant tortured, as described in Section 206, their victim or the victim was a public safety official, including any law enforcement personnel mentioned in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3, or any firefighter as described in Section 245.1, as well as any other officer in any segment of law enforcement who is employed by the federal government, the state, or any of its political subdivisions.

(B) The defendant shall file the original petition with the sentencing court. A copy of the petition shall be served on the agency that prosecuted the case. The petition shall include the defendant’s statement that the defendant was under 18 years of age at the time of the crime and was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole, the defendant’s statement describing their remorse and work towards rehabilitation, and the defendant’s statement that one of the following is true:

(i) The defendant was convicted pursuant to felony murder or aiding and abetting murder provisions of law.

(ii) The defendant does not have juvenile felony adjudications for assault or other felony crimes with a significant potential for personal harm to victims prior to the offense for which the sentence is being considered for recall.

(iii) The defendant committed the offense with at least one adult codefendant.

(iv) The defendant has performed acts that tend to indicate rehabilitation or the potential for rehabilitation, including, but not limited to, availing themselves of rehabilitative, educational, or vocational programs, if those programs have been available at their classification level and facility, using self-study for self-improvement, or showing evidence of remorse.

(C) If any of the information required in subparagraph (B) is missing from the petition, or if proof of service on the prosecuting agency is not provided, the court shall return the petition to the defendant and advise the defendant that the matter cannot be considered without the missing information.

(D) A reply to the petition, if any, shall be filed with the court within 60 days of the date on which the prosecuting agency was served with the petition, unless a continuance is granted for good cause.

(E) If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that one or more of the statements specified in clauses (i) to (iv), inclusive, of subparagraph (B) is true, the court shall recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and hold a hearing to resentence the defendant in the same manner as if the defendant had not previously been sentenced, provided that the new sentence, if any, is not greater than the initial sentence. Victims, or victim family members if the victim is deceased, shall retain the rights to participate in the hearing.

(F) The factors that the court may consider when determining whether to resentence the defendant to a term of imprisonment with the possibility of parole include, but are not limited to, the following:

(i) The defendant was convicted pursuant to felony murder or aiding and abetting murder provisions of law.

(ii) The defendant does not have juvenile felony adjudications for assault or other felony crimes with a significant potential for personal harm to victims prior to the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to life without the possibility of parole.

(iii) The defendant committed the offense with at least one adult codefendant.

(iv) Prior to the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to life without the possibility of parole, the defendant had insufficient adult support or supervision and had suffered from psychological or physical trauma, or significant stress.

(v) The defendant suffers from cognitive limitations due to mental illness, developmental disabilities, or other factors that did not constitute a defense, but influenced the defendant’s involvement in the offense.

(vi) The defendant has performed acts that tend to indicate rehabilitation or the potential for rehabilitation, including, but not limited to, availing themselves of rehabilitative, educational, or vocational programs, if those programs have been available at their classification level and facility, using self-study for self-improvement, or showing evidence of remorse.

(vii) The defendant has maintained family ties or connections with others through letter writing, calls, or visits, or has eliminated contact with individuals outside of prison who are currently involved with crime.

(viii) The defendant has had no disciplinary actions for violent activities in the last five years in which the defendant was determined to be the aggressor.

(G) The court shall have the discretion to resentence the defendant in the same manner as if the defendant had not previously been sentenced, provided that the new sentence, if any, is not greater than the initial sentence. The discretion of the court shall be exercised in consideration of the criteria in subparagraph (F). Victims, or victim family members if the victim is deceased, shall be notified of the resentencing hearing and shall retain their rights to participate in the hearing.

(H) If the sentence is not recalled or the defendant is resentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole, the defendant may submit another petition for recall and resentencing to the sentencing court when the defendant has been committed to the custody of the department for at least 20 years. If the sentence is not recalled or the defendant is resentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole under that petition, the defendant may file another petition after having served 24 years. The final petition may be submitted, and the response to that petition shall be determined, during the 25th year of the defendant’s sentence.

(I) In addition to the criteria in subparagraph (F), the court may consider any other criteria that the court deems relevant to its decision, so long as the court identifies them on the record, provides a statement of reasons for adopting them, and states why the defendant does or does not satisfy the criteria.

(J) This subdivision shall have retroactive application.

(K) Nothing in this paragraph is intended to diminish or abrogate any rights or remedies otherwise available to the defendant.

(e) (1) Notwithstanding any other law and consistent with paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), if the secretary determines that a prisoner satisfies the criteria set forth in paragraph (2), the secretary may recommend to the court that the prisoner’s sentence be recalled.

(2) The court shall have the discretion to resentence or recall if the court finds that the facts described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) or subparagraphs (B) and (C) exist:

(A) The prisoner is terminally ill with an incurable condition caused by an illness or disease that would produce death within 12 months, as determined by a physician employed by the department.

(B) The conditions under which the prisoner would be released or receive treatment do not pose a threat to public safety.

(C) The prisoner is permanently medically incapacitated with a medical condition that renders them permanently unable to perform activities of basic daily living, and results in the prisoner requiring 24-hour total care, including, but not limited to, coma, persistent vegetative state, brain death, ventilator-dependency, loss of control of muscular or neurological function, and that incapacitation did not exist at the time of the original sentencing.

(3) Within 10 days of receipt of a positive recommendation by the secretary, the court shall hold a hearing to consider whether the prisoner’s sentence should be recalled.

(4) Any physician employed by the department who determines that a prisoner has 12 months or less to live shall notify the chief medical officer of the prognosis. If the chief medical officer concurs with the prognosis, they shall notify the warden. Within 48 hours of receiving notification, the warden or the warden’s representative shall notify the prisoner of the recall and resentencing procedures, and shall arrange for the prisoner to designate a family member or other outside agent to be notified as to the prisoner’s medical condition and prognosis, and as to the recall and resentencing procedures. If the inmate is deemed mentally unfit, the warden or the warden’s representative shall contact the inmate’s emergency contact and provide the information described in paragraph (2).

(5) The warden or the warden’s representative shall provide the prisoner and their family member, agent, or emergency contact, as described in paragraph (4), updated information throughout the recall and resentencing process with regard to the prisoner’s medical condition and the status of the prisoner’s recall and resentencing proceedings.

(6) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the prisoner or their family member or designee may independently request consideration for recall and resentencing by contacting the chief medical officer at the prison or the secretary. Upon receipt of the request, the chief medical officer and the warden or the warden’s representative shall follow the procedures described in paragraph (4). If the secretary determines that the prisoner satisfies the criteria set forth in paragraph (2), the secretary may recommend to the court that the prisoner’s sentence be recalled. The secretary shall submit a recommendation for release within 30 days.

(7) Any recommendation for recall submitted to the court by the secretary shall include one or more medical evaluations, a postrelease plan, and findings pursuant to paragraph (2).

(8) If possible, the matter shall be heard before the same judge of the court who sentenced the prisoner.

(9) If the court grants the recall and resentencing application, the prisoner shall be released by the department within 48 hours of receipt of the court’s order, unless a longer time period is agreed to by the inmate. At the time of release, the warden or the warden’s representative shall ensure that the prisoner has each of the following in their possession: a discharge medical summary, full medical records, state identification, parole or postrelease community supervision medications, and all property belonging to the prisoner. After discharge, any additional records shall be sent to the prisoner’s forwarding address.

(10) The secretary shall issue a directive to medical and correctional staff employed by the department that details the guidelines and procedures for initiating a recall and resentencing procedure. The directive shall clearly state that any prisoner who is given a prognosis of 12 months or less to live is eligible for recall and resentencing consideration, and that recall and resentencing procedures shall be initiated upon that prognosis.

(11) The provisions of this subdivision shall be available to an inmate who is sentenced to a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h). For purposes of those inmates, “secretary” or “warden” shall mean the county correctional administrator and “chief medical officer” shall mean a physician designated by the county correctional administrator for this purpose.

(12) This subdivision does not apply to a prisoner sentenced to death or a term of life without the possibility of parole.

(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for purposes of paragraph (3) of subdivision (h), any allegation that a defendant is eligible for state prison due to a prior or current conviction, sentence enhancement, or because the defendant is required to register as a sex offender shall not be subject to dismissal pursuant to Section 1385.

(g) A sentence to the state prison for a determinate term for which only one term is specified, is a sentence to the state prison under this section.

(h) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision shall be punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for the term described in the underlying offense.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), where the defendant (A) has a prior or current felony conviction for a serious felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 or a prior or current conviction for a violent felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, (B) has a prior felony conviction in another jurisdiction for an offense that has all the elements of a serious felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 or a violent felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, (C) is required to register as a sex offender pursuant to Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 290) of Title 9 of Part 1, or (D) is convicted of a crime and as part of the sentence an enhancement pursuant to Section 186.11 is imposed, an executed sentence for a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision shall be served in the state prison.

(4) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent other dispositions authorized by law, including pretrial diversion, deferred entry of judgment, or an order granting probation pursuant to Section 1203.1.

(5) (A) Unless the court finds that, in the interests of justice, it is not appropriate in a particular case, the court, when imposing a sentence pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2), shall suspend execution of a concluding portion of the term for a period selected at the court’s discretion.

(B) The portion of a defendant’s sentenced term that is suspended pursuant to this paragraph shall be known as mandatory supervision, and, unless otherwise ordered by the court, shall commence upon release from physical custody or an alternative custody program, whichever is later. During the period of mandatory supervision, the defendant shall be supervised by the county probation officer in accordance with the terms, conditions, and procedures generally applicable to persons placed on probation, for the remaining unserved portion of the sentence imposed by the court. The period of supervision shall be mandatory, and may not be earlier terminated except by court order. Any proceeding to revoke or modify mandatory supervision under this subparagraph shall be conducted pursuant to either subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 1203.2 or Section 1203.3. During the period when the defendant is under that supervision, unless in actual custody related to the sentence imposed by the court, the defendant shall be entitled to only actual time credit against the term of imprisonment imposed by the court. Any time period which is suspended because a person has absconded shall not be credited toward the period of supervision.

(6) When the court is imposing a judgment pursuant to this subdivision concurrent or consecutive to a judgment or judgments previously imposed pursuant to this subdivision in another county or counties, the court rendering the second or other subsequent judgment shall determine the county or counties of incarceration and supervision of the defendant.

(7) The sentencing changes made by the act that added this subdivision shall be applied prospectively to any person sentenced on or after October 1, 2011.

(8) The sentencing changes made to paragraph (5) by the act that added this paragraph shall become effective and operative on January 1, 2015, and shall be applied prospectively to any person sentenced on or after January 1, 2015.

(9) Notwithstanding the separate punishment for any enhancement, any enhancement shall be punishable in county jail or state prison as required by the underlying offense and not as would be required by the enhancement. The intent of the Legislature in enacting this paragraph is to abrogate the holding in People v. Vega (2014) 222 Cal.App.4th 1374, that if an enhancement specifies service of sentence in state prison, the entire sentence is served in state prison, even if the punishment for the underlying offense is a term of imprisonment in the county jail.

(i) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2022, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2022, deletes or extends that date.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 1001, Sec. 1) by Stats. 2020, Ch. 29, Sec. 14. (SB 118) Effective August 6, 2020. Repealed as of January 1, 2022, by its own provisions. See later operative version, as amended by Sec. 15 of Stats. 2020, Ch. 29.)

1170.

(a) (1) The Legislature finds and declares that the purpose of sentencing is public safety achieved through punishment, rehabilitation, and restorative justice. When a sentence includes incarceration, this purpose is best served by terms that are proportionate to the seriousness of the offense with provision for uniformity in the sentences of offenders committing the same offense under similar circumstances.

(2) The Legislature further finds and declares that programs should be available for inmates, including, but not limited to, educational, rehabilitative, and restorative justice programs that are designed to promote behavior change and to prepare all eligible offenders for successful reentry into the community. The Legislature encourages the development of policies and programs designed to educate and rehabilitate all eligible offenders. In implementing this section, the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is encouraged to allow all eligible inmates the opportunity to enroll in programs that promote successful return to the community. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is directed to establish a mission statement consistent with these principles.

(3) In any case in which the sentence prescribed by statute for a person convicted of a public offense is a term of imprisonment in the state prison, or a term pursuant to subdivision (h), of any specification of three time periods, the court shall sentence the defendant to one of the terms of imprisonment specified unless the convicted person is given any other disposition provided by law, including a fine, jail, probation, or the suspension of imposition or execution of sentence or is sentenced pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1168 because they had committed their crime prior to July 1, 1977. In sentencing the convicted person, the court shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council. The court, unless it determines that there are circumstances in mitigation of the sentence prescribed, shall also impose any other term that it is required by law to impose as an additional term. Nothing in this article shall affect any provision of law that imposes the death penalty, that authorizes or restricts the granting of probation or suspending the execution or imposition of sentence, or expressly provides for imprisonment in the state prison for life, except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d). In any case in which the amount of preimprisonment credit under Section 2900.5 or any other provision of law is equal to or exceeds any sentence imposed pursuant to this chapter, except for a remaining portion of mandatory supervision imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (h), the entire sentence shall be deemed to have been served, except for the remaining period of mandatory supervision, and the defendant shall not be actually delivered to the custody of the secretary or the county correctional administrator. The court shall advise the defendant that they shall serve an applicable period of parole, postrelease community supervision, or mandatory supervision and order the defendant to report to the parole or probation office closest to the defendant’s last legal residence, unless the in-custody credits equal the total sentence, including both confinement time and the period of parole, postrelease community supervision, or mandatory supervision. The sentence shall be deemed a separate prior prison term or a sentence of imprisonment in a county jail under subdivision (h) for purposes of Section 667.5, and a copy of the judgment and other necessary documentation shall be forwarded to the secretary.

(b) When a judgment of imprisonment is to be imposed and the statute specifies three possible terms, the court shall order imposition of the middle term, unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation of the crime. At least four days prior to the time set for imposition of judgment, either party or the victim, or the family of the victim if the victim is deceased, may submit a statement in aggravation or mitigation to dispute facts in the record or the probation officer’s report, or to present additional facts. In determining whether there are circumstances that justify imposition of the upper or lower term, the court may consider the record in the case, the probation officer’s report, other reports, including reports received pursuant to Section 1203.03, and statements in aggravation or mitigation submitted by the prosecution, the defendant, or the victim, or the family of the victim if the victim is deceased, and any further evidence introduced at the sentencing hearing. The court shall set forth on the record the facts and reasons for imposing the upper or lower term. The court may not impose an upper term by using the fact of any enhancement upon which sentence is imposed under any provision of law. A term of imprisonment shall not be specified if imposition of sentence is suspended.

(c) The court shall state the reasons for its sentence choice on the record at the time of sentencing. The court shall also inform the defendant that as part of the sentence after expiration of the term they may be on parole for a period as provided in Section 3000 or 3000.08 or postrelease community supervision for a period as provided in Section 3451.

(d) (1) When a defendant subject to this section or subdivision (b) of Section 1168 has been sentenced to be imprisoned in the state prison or a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h) and has been committed to the custody of the secretary or the county correctional administrator, the court may, within 120 days of the date of commitment on its own motion, or at any time upon the recommendation of the secretary or the Board of Parole Hearings in the case of state prison inmates, the county correctional administrator in the case of county jail inmates, or the district attorney of the county in which the defendant was sentenced, recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and resentence the defendant in the same manner as if they had not previously been sentenced, provided the new sentence, if any, is no greater than the initial sentence. The court resentencing under this subdivision shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council so as to eliminate disparity of sentences and to promote uniformity of sentencing. The court resentencing under this paragraph may reduce a defendant’s term of imprisonment and modify the judgment, including a judgment entered after a plea agreement, if it is in the interest of justice. The court may consider postconviction factors, including, but not limited to, the inmate’s disciplinary record and record of rehabilitation while incarcerated, evidence that reflects whether age, time served, and diminished physical condition, if any, have reduced the inmate’s risk for future violence, and evidence that reflects that circumstances have changed since the inmate’s original sentencing so that the inmate’s continued incarceration is no longer in the interest of justice. Credit shall be given for time served.

(2) (A) (i) When a defendant who was under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole has been incarcerated for at least 15 years, the defendant may submit to the sentencing court a petition for recall and resentencing.

(ii) Notwithstanding clause (i), this paragraph shall not apply to defendants sentenced to life without parole for an offense where it was pled and proved that the defendant tortured, as described in Section 206, their victim or the victim was a public safety official, including any law enforcement personnel mentioned in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3, or any firefighter as described in Section 245.1, as well as any other officer in any segment of law enforcement who is employed by the federal government, the state, or any of its political subdivisions.

(B) The defendant shall file the original petition with the sentencing court. A copy of the petition shall be served on the agency that prosecuted the case. The petition shall include the defendant’s statement that the defendant was under 18 years of age at the time of the crime and was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole, the defendant’s statement describing their remorse and work towards rehabilitation, and the defendant’s statement that one of the following is true:

(i) The defendant was convicted pursuant to felony murder or aiding and abetting murder provisions of law.

(ii) The defendant does not have juvenile felony adjudications for assault or other felony crimes with a significant potential for personal harm to victims prior to the offense for which the sentence is being considered for recall.

(iii) The defendant committed the offense with at least one adult codefendant.

(iv) The defendant has performed acts that tend to indicate rehabilitation or the potential for rehabilitation, including, but not limited to, availing themselves of rehabilitative, educational, or vocational programs, if those programs have been available at their classification level and facility, using self-study for self-improvement, or showing evidence of remorse.

(C) If any of the information required in subparagraph (B) is missing from the petition, or if proof of service on the prosecuting agency is not provided, the court shall return the petition to the defendant and advise the defendant that the matter cannot be considered without the missing information.

(D) A reply to the petition, if any, shall be filed with the court within 60 days of the date on which the prosecuting agency was served with the petition, unless a continuance is granted for good cause.

(E) If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that one or more of the statements specified in clauses (i) to (iv), inclusive, of subparagraph (B) is true, the court shall recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and hold a hearing to resentence the defendant in the same manner as if the defendant had not previously been sentenced, provided that the new sentence, if any, is not greater than the initial sentence. Victims, or victim family members if the victim is deceased, shall retain the rights to participate in the hearing.

(F) The factors that the court may consider when determining whether to resentence the defendant to a term of imprisonment with the possibility of parole include, but are not limited to, the following:

(i) The defendant was convicted pursuant to felony murder or aiding and abetting murder provisions of law.

(ii) The defendant does not have juvenile felony adjudications for assault or other felony crimes with a significant potential for personal harm to victims prior to the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to life without the possibility of parole.

(iii) The defendant committed the offense with at least one adult codefendant.

(iv) Prior to the offense for which the defendant was sentenced to life without the possibility of parole, the defendant had insufficient adult support or supervision and had suffered from psychological or physical trauma, or significant stress.

(v) The defendant suffers from cognitive limitations due to mental illness, developmental disabilities, or other factors that did not constitute a defense, but influenced the defendant’s involvement in the offense.

(vi) The defendant has performed acts that tend to indicate rehabilitation or the potential for rehabilitation, including, but not limited to, availing themselves of rehabilitative, educational, or vocational programs, if those programs have been available at their classification level and facility, using self-study for self-improvement, or showing evidence of remorse.

(vii) The defendant has maintained family ties or connections with others through letter writing, calls, or visits, or has eliminated contact with individuals outside of prison who are currently involved with crime.

(viii) The defendant has had no disciplinary actions for violent activities in the last five years in which the defendant was determined to be the aggressor.

(G) The court shall have the discretion to resentence the defendant in the same manner as if the defendant had not previously been sentenced, provided that the new sentence, if any, is not greater than the initial sentence. The discretion of the court shall be exercised in consideration of the criteria in subparagraph (F). Victims, or victim family members if the victim is deceased, shall be notified of the resentencing hearing and shall retain their rights to participate in the hearing.

(H) If the sentence is not recalled or the defendant is resentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole, the defendant may submit another petition for recall and resentencing to the sentencing court when the defendant has been committed to the custody of the department for at least 20 years. If the sentence is not recalled or the defendant is resentenced to imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole under that petition, the defendant may file another petition after having served 24 years. The final petition may be submitted, and the response to that petition shall be determined, during the 25th year of the defendant’s sentence.

(I) In addition to the criteria in subparagraph (F), the court may consider any other criteria that the court deems relevant to its decision, so long as the court identifies them on the record, provides a statement of reasons for adopting them, and states why the defendant does or does not satisfy the criteria.

(J) This subdivision shall have retroactive application.

(K) Nothing in this paragraph is intended to diminish or abrogate any rights or remedies otherwise available to the defendant.

(e) (1) Notwithstanding any other law and consistent with paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), if the secretary determines that a prisoner satisfies the criteria set forth in paragraph (2), the secretary may recommend to the court that the prisoner’s sentence be recalled.

(2) The court shall have the discretion to resentence or recall if the court finds that the facts described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) or subparagraphs (B) and (C) exist:

(A) The prisoner is terminally ill with an incurable condition caused by an illness or disease that would produce death within 12 months, as determined by a physician employed by the department.

(B) The conditions under which the prisoner would be released or receive treatment do not pose a threat to public safety.

(C) The prisoner is permanently medically incapacitated with a medical condition that renders them permanently unable to perform activities of basic daily living, and results in the prisoner requiring 24-hour total care, including, but not limited to, coma, persistent vegetative state, brain death, ventilator-dependency, loss of control of muscular or neurological function, and that incapacitation did not exist at the time of the original sentencing.

(3) Within 10 days of receipt of a positive recommendation by the secretary, the court shall hold a hearing to consider whether the prisoner’s sentence should be recalled.

(4) Any physician employed by the department who determines that a prisoner has 12 months or less to live shall notify the chief medical officer of the prognosis. If the chief medical officer concurs with the prognosis, they shall notify the warden. Within 48 hours of receiving notification, the warden or the warden’s representative shall notify the prisoner of the recall and resentencing procedures, and shall arrange for the prisoner to designate a family member or other outside agent to be notified as to the prisoner’s medical condition and prognosis, and as to the recall and resentencing procedures. If the inmate is deemed mentally unfit, the warden or the warden’s representative shall contact the inmate’s emergency contact and provide the information described in paragraph (2).

(5) The warden or the warden’s representative shall provide the prisoner and their family member, agent, or emergency contact, as described in paragraph (4), updated information throughout the recall and resentencing process with regard to the prisoner’s medical condition and the status of the prisoner’s recall and resentencing proceedings.

(6) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the prisoner or their family member or designee may independently request consideration for recall and resentencing by contacting the chief medical officer at the prison or the secretary. Upon receipt of the request, the chief medical officer and the warden or the warden’s representative shall follow the procedures described in paragraph (4). If the secretary determines that the prisoner satisfies the criteria set forth in paragraph (2), the secretary may recommend to the court that the prisoner’s sentence be recalled. The secretary shall submit a recommendation for release within 30 days.

(7) Any recommendation for recall submitted to the court by the secretary shall include one or more medical evaluations, a postrelease plan, and findings pursuant to paragraph (2).

(8) If possible, the matter shall be heard before the same judge of the court who sentenced the prisoner.

(9) If the court grants the recall and resentencing application, the prisoner shall be released by the department within 48 hours of receipt of the court’s order, unless a longer time period is agreed to by the inmate. At the time of release, the warden or the warden’s representative shall ensure that the prisoner has each of the following in their possession: a discharge medical summary, full medical records, state identification, parole or postrelease community supervision medications, and all property belonging to the prisoner. After discharge, any additional records shall be sent to the prisoner’s forwarding address.

(10) The secretary shall issue a directive to medical and correctional staff employed by the department that details the guidelines and procedures for initiating a recall and resentencing procedure. The directive shall clearly state that any prisoner who is given a prognosis of 12 months or less to live is eligible for recall and resentencing consideration, and that recall and resentencing procedures shall be initiated upon that prognosis.

(11) The provisions of this subdivision shall be available to an inmate who is sentenced to a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h). For purposes of those inmates, “secretary” or “warden” shall mean the county correctional administrator and “chief medical officer” shall mean a physician designated by the county correctional administrator for this purpose.

(12) This subdivision does not apply to a prisoner sentenced to death or a term of life without the possibility of parole.

(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for purposes of paragraph (3) of subdivision (h), any allegation that a defendant is eligible for state prison due to a prior or current conviction, sentence enhancement, or because the defendant is required to register as a sex offender shall not be subject to dismissal pursuant to Section 1385.

(g) A sentence to the state prison for a determinate term for which only one term is specified, is a sentence to state prison under this section.

(h) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision shall be punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for the term described in the underlying offense.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), where the defendant (A) has a prior or current felony conviction for a serious felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 or a prior or current conviction for a violent felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, (B) has a prior felony conviction in another jurisdiction for an offense that has all the elements of a serious felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 or a violent felony described in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, (C) is required to register as a sex offender pursuant to Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 290) of Title 9 of Part 1, or (D) is convicted of a crime and as part of the sentence an enhancement pursuant to Section 186.11 is imposed, an executed sentence for a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision shall be served in the state prison.

(4) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent other dispositions authorized by law, including pretrial diversion, deferred entry of judgment, or an order granting probation pursuant to Section 1203.1.

(5) (A) Unless the court finds, in the interest of justice, that it is not appropriate in a particular case, the court, when imposing a sentence pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2), shall suspend execution of a concluding portion of the term for a period selected at the court’s discretion.

(B) The portion of a defendant’s sentenced term that is suspended pursuant to this paragraph shall be known as mandatory supervision, and, unless otherwise ordered by the court, shall commence upon release from physical custody or an alternative custody program, whichever is later. During the period of mandatory supervision, the defendant shall be supervised by the county probation officer in accordance with the terms, conditions, and procedures generally applicable to persons placed on probation, for the remaining unserved portion of the sentence imposed by the court. The period of supervision shall be mandatory, and may not be earlier terminated except by court order. Any proceeding to revoke or modify mandatory supervision under this subparagraph shall be conducted pursuant to either subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 1203.2 or Section 1203.3. During the period when the defendant is under that supervision, unless in actual custody related to the sentence imposed by the court, the defendant shall be entitled to only actual time credit against the term of imprisonment imposed by the court. Any time period which is suspended because a person has absconded shall not be credited toward the period of supervision.

(6) When the court is imposing a judgment pursuant to this subdivision concurrent or consecutive to a judgment or judgments previously imposed pursuant to this subdivision in another county or counties, the court rendering the second or other subsequent judgment shall determine the county or counties of incarceration and supervision of the defendant.

(7) The sentencing changes made by the act that added this subdivision shall be applied prospectively to any person sentenced on or after October 1, 2011.

(8) The sentencing changes made to paragraph (5) by the act that added this paragraph shall become effective and operative on January 1, 2015, and shall be applied prospectively to any person sentenced on or after January 1, 2015.

(9) Notwithstanding the separate punishment for any enhancement, any enhancement shall be punishable in county jail or state prison as required by the underlying offense and not as would be required by the enhancement. The intent of the Legislature in enacting this paragraph is to abrogate the holding in People v. Vega (2014) 222 Cal.App.4th 1374, that if an enhancement specifies service of sentence in state prison, the entire sentence is served in state prison, even if the punishment for the underlying offense is a term of imprisonment in the county jail.

(i) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2022.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 1001, Sec. 2) by Stats. 2020, Ch. 29, Sec. 15. (SB 118) Effective August 6, 2020. Section operative January 1, 2022, by its own provisions.)

1170.01.

(a) The County Resentencing Pilot Program (pilot) is hereby established to support and evaluate a collaborative approach to exercising prosecutorial resentencing discretion pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 1170. Participants in the pilot shall include a county district attorney’s office, a county public defender’s office, and may include a community-based organization in each county pilot site.

(b) Each participating district attorney’s office shall do all of the following:

(1) Develop and implement a written policy which, at minimum, outlines the factors, criteria, and processes that shall be used to identify, investigate, and recommend individuals for recall and resentencing. The district attorney’s office may take into account any input provided by the participating public defender’s office or a qualified contracted community-based organization in developing this policy.

(2) Identify, investigate, and recommend the recall and resentencing of incarcerated persons consistent with its written policy.

(3) Direct all funding provided for the pilot be used for the purposes of resentencing individuals pursuant to the pilot, including, but not limited to, ensuring adequate staffing of deputy district attorneys, paralegals, and data analysts who will coordinate obtaining records and case files, support data entry, assist in the preparation and filing of pleadings, coordinate with victim services, and any other tasks required to complete the processing and facilitation of resentencing recommendations and to comply with the requirements of the pilot.

(c) A participating district attorney’s office may contract with a qualifying community-based organization for the duration of the pilot. The community-based organization shall have experience working with currently or formerly incarcerated individuals and their support networks, and shall have expertise in at least two of the following areas:

(1) Supporting and developing prerelease and reentry plans.

(2) Family reunification services.

(3) Referrals to postrelease wraparound programs, including, but not limited to, employment, education, housing, substance use disorder, and mental health service programs.

(4) Restorative justice programs.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the discretion or authority granted to prosecutors under paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 1170.

(e) All funding provided to a participating public defender’s office shall be used for the purposes of supporting the resentencing of individuals pursuant to the pilot, including, but not limited to, ensuring adequate staffing of deputy public defenders and other support staff to represent incarcerated persons under consideration for resentencing, identifying and recommending incarcerated persons to the district attorney’s office for resentencing consideration, and developing reentry and release plans. A participating public defender’s office may provide input to the county district attorney’s office regarding the factors, criteria, and processes to be used by the district attorney in their exercise of discretion under paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 1170.

(f) Each participating district attorney’s office shall utilize the same template developed by the evaluator to identify and track specific measures consistent with the goals of this section. The template shall be finalized no later than October 1, 2021. The measures shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(1) A summary of expenditures by each entity receiving funds.

(2) A summary of any implementation delays or challenges, as well as steps being taken to address them.

(3) The total number of people incarcerated in state prison on the first day of each reporting year for convictions obtained in the reporting county.

(4) The factors and criteria used to identify cases to be considered for prosecutor-initiated resentencing.

(5) The total number of cases considered by a pilot participant for prosecutor-initiated resentencing. For each case, information collected shall include the date the case was considered, along with the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, categories of controlling offenses, date of prison admission, earliest possible release date or minimum eligible parole date, and date of birth.

(6) The total number of prosecutor-initiated resentencing recommendations by the pilot participant to the court for recall of sentence, date of referral, and information on the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, groups of controlling offenses, age at time of recall consideration, time served, and time remaining.

(7) The total number of prosecutor-initiated resentencing recommendations by the pilot participant in which the court responded, the date the court considered each case referred, how many cases the court considered, and information on the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, groups of controlling offenses, age at time of recall consideration, time served, and time remaining.

(8) The total number of prosecutor-initiated resentencing recommendations denied by the court, and for each case the date of the denial and the reasons for the denial, and information on the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, groups of controlling offenses, age at time of recall consideration, time served, and time remaining.

(9) The total number of people who were resentenced, the date of resentencing, and information on the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, groups of controlling offenses, age at time of recall consideration, time served, and time remaining.

(10) The total number of people released from state prison due to prosecutor-initiated resentencing by the pilot participant, how many were released from state prison and the date of release, and information on the defendant’s race, ethnicity, gender, age at commitment, groups of controlling offenses, age at time of recall consideration, time served, and time remaining.

(g) The participating district attorneys’ offices shall provide the data listed in subdivision (f) to the evaluator on a quarterly basis.

(h) To the extent possible, the evaluation of data reported by the participating district attorneys’ offices shall be conducted in a manner that allows for comparison between the pilot participant sites. This includes, but is not limited to, collection and reporting of data at the individual case level using the same definitions. Each pilot participant shall provide any information necessary to the evaluator’s completion of its analysis.

(i) Notwithstanding any other law, state entities, including, but not limited to, the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, the State Department of Social Services, and the Department of Child Support Services, shall provide any information needed for the completion of the evaluator’s analysis.

(j) The evaluator shall do all of the following:

(1) For each case considered by a pilot participant, calculate the time served by an individual and the time remaining on their sentence.

(2) Analyze the data and prepare two preliminary reports and a final report to the Legislature. The first preliminary report shall be submitted to the Legislature on or before October 1, 2022. The second preliminary report shall be submitted to the Legislature on or before October 1, 2023. The final report shall be submitted to the Legislature on or before January 31, 2025.

(3) As part of the evaluation, the evaluator shall conduct, at minimum, four assessments, as follows:

(A) An implementation assessment shall be conducted to determine if pilot activities were implemented as intended. This assessment shall include semi-structured in-depth interviews with all relevant stakeholders, including, but not limited to, representatives from the district attorney agencies, public defender agencies and community-based organizations participating in the pilot jurisdictions. The assessment shall document the different strategies the pilot sites used, the development and implementation of the written resentencing policies and procedures, which cases were prioritized for resentencing and the referral process, and factors that facilitated or hindered implementation.

(B) A cost study that shall estimate the resources required to implement the pilot activities, to include both new expenditures on personnel and other goods and services, and the reallocation of resources from prior activities to the pilot activities. The assessment shall include total cost and cost per case.

(C) An assessment of the estimated amount of time by which an individual’s earliest possible release date or minimum eligible parole date was advanced due to prosecutor-initiated resentencing, including a descriptive analysis of the process of cases from initial recommendation to final resentencing outcomes to document points of attrition in the process and allow for comparison between individuals based on age, gender, race, offense, and county. This assessment shall include a description of recidivism outcomes for individuals released from prison, based on definitions created in collaboration with pilot participants. This assessment shall include a calculation of the total number of days of incarceration avoided, and amount of time by which the person’s earliest possible release date or minimum eligible parole date was advanced due to prosecutor-initiated resentencing for those individuals released from prison using data maintained by the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation data systems.

(D) An assessment which compares, to the extent feasible, records at the individual case level with county or state administrative data files that capture utilization of government benefit and social service programs, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, and other government cash or in-kind social services, and court-ordered child support and visitation. The evaluator shall document changes in these indicators at the individual case level during the evaluation period, in order to determine whether any observed changes can be attributed to the pilot. The evaluator shall combine the descriptive information on outcomes from the third and fourth evaluation components with the cost analysis findings from the second component to estimate the potential for cost savings to state and local governments from the pilot activities. The evaluator shall, using the data collected from the pilot, estimate the potential for cost savings to state and local governments from the pilot activities.

(k) The pilot term shall begin on September 1, 2021, and end on September 1, 2024. The evaluation term shall begin on September 1, 2021, and end on January 31, 2025.

(Added by Stats. 2021, Ch. 80, Sec. 3. (AB 145) Effective July 16, 2021.)

1170.02.

A prisoner is not eligible for resentence or recall pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 1170 if he or she was convicted of first-degree murder if the victim was a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1, 830.2, 830.3, 830.31, 830.32, 830.33, 830.34, 830.35, 830.36, 830.37, 830.4, 830.5, 830.6, 830.10, 830.11, or 830.12, who was killed while engaged in the performance of his or her duties, and the individual knew, or reasonably should have known, that the victim was a peace officer engaged in the performance of his or her duties, or the victim was a peace officer or a former peace officer under any of the above-enumerated sections, and was intentionally killed in retaliation for the performance of his or her official duties.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 886, Sec. 1. (SB 6) Effective January 1, 2017.)

1170.05.

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, the Secretary of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation may offer a program under which inmates, as specified in subdivision (c), who are not precluded by subdivision (d), and who have been committed to state prison may be allowed to participate in a voluntary alternative custody program as defined in subdivision (b) in lieu of their confinement in state prison. In order to qualify for the program an offender need not be confined in an institution under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Under this program, one day of participation in an alternative custody program shall be in lieu of one day of incarceration in the state prison. Participants in the program shall receive any sentence reduction credits that they would have received had they served their sentence in the state prison, and shall be subject to denial and loss of credit pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 2932. The department may enter into contracts with county agencies, not-for-profit organizations, for-profit organizations, and others in order to promote alternative custody placements.

(b) As used in this section, an alternative custody program shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(1) Confinement to a residential home during the hours designated by the department.

(2) Confinement to a residential drug or treatment program during the hours designated by the department.

(3) Confinement to a transitional care facility that offers appropriate services.

(c) Except as provided by subdivision (d), only inmates sentenced to state prison for a determinate term of imprisonment pursuant to Section 1170 are eligible to participate in the alternative custody program authorized by this section.

(d) An inmate committed to the state prison who meets any of the following criteria is not eligible to participate in the alternative custody program:

(1) The person has a current conviction for a violent felony as defined in Section 667.5.

(2) The person has a current conviction for a serious felony as defined in Sections 1192.7 and 1192.8.

(3) The person has a current or prior conviction for an offense that requires the person to register as a sex offender as provided in Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 290) of Title 9 of Part 1.

(4) The person was screened by the department using a validated risk assessment tool and determined to pose a high risk to commit a violent offense.

(5) The person has a history, within the last 10 years, of escape from a facility while under juvenile or adult custody, including, but not limited to, any detention facility, camp, jail, or state prison facility.

(e) An alternative custody program shall include the use of electronic monitoring, global positioning system devices, or other supervising devices for the purpose of helping to verify a participant’s compliance with the rules and regulations of the program. The devices shall not be used to eavesdrop or record any conversation, except a conversation between the participant and the person supervising the participant, in which case the recording of such a conversation is to be used solely for the purposes of voice identification.

(f) (1) In order to implement alternative custody for the population specified in subdivision (c), the department shall create, and the participant shall agree to and fully participate in, an individualized treatment and rehabilitation plan. When available and appropriate for the individualized treatment and rehabilitation plan, the department shall prioritize the use of evidence-based programs and services that will aid in the successful reentry into society while the participant takes part in alternative custody. Case management services shall be provided to support rehabilitation and to track the progress and individualized treatment plan compliance of the inmate.

(2) For purposes of this section, “evidence-based practices” means supervision policies, procedures, programs, and practices demonstrated by scientific research to reduce recidivism among individuals under probation, parole, or postrelease community supervision.

(g) The secretary shall prescribe reasonable rules and regulations under which the alternative custody program shall operate. The department shall adopt regulations necessary to effectuate this section, including emergency regulations as provided under Section 5058.3 and adopted pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code). The participant shall be informed in writing that compliance with the rules and regulations of the program is required, including, but not limited to, the following rules:

(1) The participant shall remain within the interior premises of the participant’s residence during the hours designated by the secretary or the secretary’s designee.

(2) The participant shall be subject to search and seizure by a peace officer at any time of the day or night, with or without cause. In addition, the participant shall admit any peace officer designated by the secretary or the secretary’s designee into the participant’s residence at any time for purposes of verifying the participant’s compliance with the conditions of detention. Prior to participation in the alternative custody program, all participants shall agree, in writing, to these terms and conditions.

(3) The secretary or the secretary’s designee may immediately retake the participant into custody to serve the balance of the participant’s sentence if the electronic monitoring or supervising devices are unable for any reason to properly perform their function at the designated place of detention, if the participant fails to remain within the place of detention as stipulated in the agreement, or if the participant for any other reason no longer meets the established criteria under this section.

(h) Whenever a peace officer supervising a participant has reasonable suspicion to believe that the participant is not complying with the rules or conditions of the program, or that the electronic monitoring devices are unable to function properly in the designated place of confinement, the peace officer may, under general or specific authorization of the secretary or the secretary’s designee, and without a warrant of arrest, retake the participant into custody to complete the remainder of the original sentence.

(i) This section does not require the secretary or the secretary’s designee to allow an inmate to participate in this program if it appears from the record that the inmate has not satisfactorily complied with reasonable rules and regulations while in custody. An inmate is eligible for participation in an alternative custody program only if the secretary or the secretary’s designee concludes that the inmate meets the criteria for program participation established under this section and that the inmate’s participation is consistent with any reasonable rules and regulations prescribed by the secretary.

(1) The rules and regulations and administrative policies of the program shall be written and shall be given or made available to the participant upon assignment to the alternative custody program.

(2) The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall have the sole discretion concerning whether to permit program participation as an alternative to custody in state prison. A risk and needs assessment shall be completed on each inmate to assist in the determination of eligibility for participation and the type of alternative custody.

(3) An inmate’s existing psychiatric or medical condition that requires ongoing care is not a basis for excluding the inmate from eligibility to participate in an alternative custody program authorized by this section.

(j) The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall establish a timeline for the application process. The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall respond to an applicant within two weeks of receiving the application to inform the inmate that the application was received, and to notify the inmate of the eligibility criteria of the program. The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall provide a written notice to the inmate of acceptance or denial into the program. The individualized treatment and rehabilitation plan described in subdivision (f) shall be developed, in consultation with the inmate, after the applicant has been found potentially eligible for participation in the program and no later than 30 calendar days after the potential eligibility determination. Except as necessary to comply with any release notification requirements, the inmate shall be released to the program no later than seven business days following notice of acceptance into the program or, if this is not possible in the case of an inmate to be placed in a residential drug or treatment program or in a transitional care facility, the first day a contracted bed becomes available at the requested location. If the inmate is denied participation in the program, the notice of denial shall specify the reason the inmate was denied. The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall maintain a record of the application and notice of denials for participation. The inmate may appeal the decision through normal grievance procedures or reapply for participation in the program 30 days after the notice of the denial.

(k) The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall permit program participants to seek and retain employment in the community, attend psychological counseling sessions or educational or vocational training classes, participate in life skills or parenting training, utilize substance abuse treatment services, or seek medical and dental assistance based upon the participant’s individualized treatment and release plan. Participation in other rehabilitative services and programs may be approved by the case manager if it is specified as a requirement of the inmate’s individualized treatment and rehabilitative case plan. Willful failure of the program participant to return to the place of detention not later than the expiration of any period of time during which the participant is authorized to be away from the place of detention pursuant to this section, unauthorized departures from the place of detention, or tampering with or disabling, or attempting to tamper with or disable, an electronic monitoring device shall subject the participant to a return to custody pursuant to subdivisions (g) and (h). In addition, participants may be subject to forfeiture of credits pursuant to the provisions of Section 2932, or to discipline for violation of rules established by the secretary.

(l) (1) Notwithstanding any other law, the secretary or the secretary’s designee shall provide the information specified in paragraph (2) regarding participants in an alternative custody program to the law enforcement agencies of the jurisdiction in which persons participating in an alternative custody program reside.

(2) The information required by paragraph (1) shall consist of the following:

(A) The participant’s name, address, and date of birth.

(B) The offense committed by the participant.

(C) The period of time the participant will be subject to an alternative custody program.

(3) The information received by a law enforcement agency pursuant to this subdivision may be used for the purpose of monitoring the impact of an alternative custody program on the community.

(m) It is the intent of the Legislature that the alternative custody program established under this section maintain the highest public confidence, credibility, and public safety. In the furtherance of these standards, the secretary may administer an alternative custody program pursuant to written contracts with appropriate public agencies or entities to provide specified program services. A public agency or entity entering into a contract may not itself employ a person who is in an alternative custody program. The department shall determine the recidivism rate of each participant in an alternative custody program.

(n) An inmate participating in this program shall voluntarily agree to all of the provisions of the program in writing, including that the inmate may be returned to confinement at any time with or without cause, and shall not be charged fees or costs for the program.

(o) (1) The secretary or the secretary’s designee shall assist an individual participating in the alternative custody program in obtaining health care coverage, including, but not limited to, assistance with having suspended Medi-Cal benefits reinstated, applying for Medi-Cal benefits, or obtaining health care coverage under a private health plan or policy.

(2) To the extent not covered by a participant’s health care coverage, the state shall retain responsibility for the medical, dental, and mental health needs of individuals participating in the alternative custody program.

(p) The secretary shall adopt emergency regulations specifically governing participants in this program.

(q) If a phrase, clause, sentence, or provision of this section or application thereof to a person or circumstance is held invalid, that invalidity shall not affect any other phrase, clause, sentence, or provision or application of this section that can be given effect without the invalid phrase, clause, sentence, or provision or application and to this end the provisions of this section are declared to be severable.

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 256, Sec. 11. (SB 781) Effective January 1, 2020.)

1170.06.

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, a sheriff or a county director of corrections is authorized to offer a program under which inmates as specified in subdivision (c), who are not precluded by subdivision (d), and who have been committed to a county jail may be allowed to participate in a voluntary alternative custody program as defined in subdivision (b) in lieu of their confinement in a county jail. Under this program, one day of participation is in lieu of one day of incarceration in a county jail. Participants in the program shall receive any sentence reduction credits that they would have received had they served their sentence in a county jail, and are subject to denial and loss of credit pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 4019. The sheriff or the county director of corrections may enter into contracts with county agencies, not-for-profit organizations, for-profit organizations, and others in order to promote alternative custody placements.

(b) As used in this section, an alternative custody program shall include, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) Confinement to a residential home during the hours designated by the sheriff or the county director of corrections.

(2) Confinement to a residential drug or treatment program during the hours designated by the county sheriff or the county director of corrections.

(3) Confinement to a transitional care facility that offers appropriate services.

(4) Confinement to a mental health clinic or hospital that offers appropriate mental health services.

(c) Except as provided by subdivision (d), inmates sentenced to a county jail for a determinate term of imprisonment pursuant to a misdemeanor or a felony pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170, and only those persons, are eligible to participate in the alternative custody program authorized by this section.

(d) An inmate committed to a county jail who meets any of the following criteria is not eligible to participate in the alternative custody program:

(1) The person was screened by the sheriff or the county director of corrections using a validated risk assessment tool and determined to pose a high risk to commit a violent offense.

(2) The person has a history, within the last 10 years, of escape from a facility while under juvenile or adult custody, including, but not limited to, any detention facility, camp, jail, or state prison facility.

(3) The person has a current or prior conviction for an offense that requires the person to register as a sex offender as provided in Chapter 5.5. (commencing with Section 290) of Title 9 of Part 1.

(e) An alternative custody program may include the use of electronic monitoring, global positioning system devices, or other supervising devices for the purpose of helping to verify a participant’s compliance with the rules and regulations of the program. The devices shall not be used to eavesdrop or record any conversation, except a conversation between the participant and the person supervising the participant, in which case the recording of the conversation is to be used solely for the purposes of voice identification.

(f) (1) In order to implement alternative custody for the population specified in subdivision (c), the sheriff or the county director of corrections shall create, and the participant shall agree to and fully participate in, an individualized treatment and rehabilitation plan. When available and appropriate for the individualized treatment and rehabilitation plan, the sheriff or the county director of corrections shall prioritize the use of evidence-based programs and services that will aid in the participant’s successful reentry into society while he or she takes part in alternative custody. Case management services shall be provided to support rehabilitation and to track the progress and individualized treatment plan compliance of the inmate.

(2) For purposes of this section, “evidence-based practices” means supervision policies, procedures, programs, and practices demonstrated by scientific research to reduce recidivism among individuals under probation, parole, or postrelease community supervision.

(g) The sheriff or the county director of corrections shall prescribe reasonable rules to govern the operation of the alternative custody program. Each participant shall be informed in writing that he or she is required to comply with the rules of the program, including, but not limited to, the following rules:

(1) The participant shall remain within the interior premises of his or her residence during the hours designated by the sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee.

(2) The participant shall be subject to search and seizure by a peace officer at any time of the day or night, with or without cause. In addition, the participant shall admit any peace officer designated by the sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee into the participant’s residence at any time for purposes of verifying the participant’s compliance with the conditions of his or her detention. Prior to participation in the alternative custody program, each participant shall agree in writing to these terms and conditions.

(3) The sheriff or his or her designee, or the county director of corrections or his or her designee, may immediately retake the participant into custody to serve the balance of his or her sentence if an electronic monitoring or supervising device is unable for any reason to properly perform its function at the designated place of detention, if the participant fails to remain within the place of detention as stipulated in the agreement, or if the participant for any other reason no longer meets the criteria under this section.

(h) Whenever a peace officer supervising a participant has reasonable suspicion to believe that the participant is not complying with the rules or conditions of the program, or that a required electronic monitoring device is unable to function properly in the designated place of confinement, the peace officer may, under general or specific authorization of the sheriff or his or her designee, or the county director of corrections or his or her designee, and without a warrant of arrest, retake the participant into custody to complete the remainder of the original sentence.

(i) This section shall not be construed to require a sheriff or his or her designee, or a county director of corrections or his or her designee, to allow an inmate to participate in this program if it appears from the record that the inmate has not satisfactorily complied with reasonable rules and regulations while in custody. An inmate shall be eligible for participation in an alternative custody program only if the sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee concludes that the inmate meets the criteria for program participation established under this section and that the inmate’s participation is consistent with any reasonable rules prescribed by the sheriff or the county director of corrections.

(1) The rules and administrative policies of the program shall be written and shall be given or made available to each participant upon assignment to the alternative custody program.

(2) The sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee shall have the sole discretion concerning whether to permit program participation as an alternative to custody in a county jail. A risk and needs assessment shall be completed on each inmate to assist in the determination of eligibility for participation and the type of alternative custody.

(j) (1) The sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee shall permit program participants to seek and retain employment in the community, attend psychological counseling sessions or educational or vocational training classes, participate in life skills or parenting training, utilize substance abuse treatment services, or seek medical, mental health, and dental assistance based upon the participant’s individualized treatment and release plan. Participation in other rehabilitative services and programs may be approved by the case manager if it is specified as a requirement of the inmate’s individualized treatment and rehabilitative case plan.

(2) Willful failure of the program participant to return to the place of detention prior to the expiration of any period of time during which he or she is authorized to be away from the place of detention, unauthorized departures from the place of detention, or tampering with or disabling, or attempting to tamper with or disable, an electronic monitoring device is punishable pursuant to Section 4532 and shall additionally subject the participant to a return to custody pursuant to subdivisions (g) and (h). In addition, participants may be subject to forfeiture of credits pursuant to the provisions of Section 4019, or to discipline for violation of rules established by the sheriff or the county director of corrections.

(k) (1) Notwithstanding any other law, the sheriff or his or her designee or the county director of corrections or his or her designee shall provide the information specified in paragraph (2) regarding participants in an alternative custody program to the law enforcement agencies of the jurisdiction in which persons participating in an alternative custody program reside.

(2) The information required by paragraph (1) shall consist of the following:

(A) The participant’s name, address, and date of birth.

(B) The offense committed by the participant.

(C) The period of time the participant will be subject to an alternative custody program.

(3) The information received by a law enforcement agency pursuant to this subdivision may be used for the purpose of monitoring the impact of an alternative custody program on the community.

(l) It is the intent of the Legislature that the alternative custody programs established under this section maintain the highest public confidence, credibility, and public safety. In the furtherance of these standards, the sheriff or the county director of corrections may administer an alternative custody program pursuant to written contracts with appropriate public agencies or entities to provide specified program services. No public agency or entity entering into a contract may itself employ any person who is in an alternative custody program. The sheriff or the county director of corrections shall determine the recidivism rate of each participant in an alternative custody program.

(m) An inmate participating in this program shall voluntarily agree to all of the provisions of the program in writing, including that he or she may be returned to confinement at any time with or without cause, and shall not be charged fees or costs for the program.

(n) If a phrase, clause, sentence, or provision of this section or application thereof to a person or circumstance is held invalid, that invalidity shall not affect any other phrase, clause, sentence, or provision or application of this section, which can be given effect without the invalid phrase, clause, sentence, or provision or application and to this end the provisions of this section are declared to be severable.

(Added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 26, Sec. 18. (AB 1468) Effective June 20, 2014.)

1170.1.

(a) Except as otherwise provided by law, and subject to Section 654, when any person is convicted of two or more felonies, whether in the same proceeding or court or in different proceedings or courts, and whether by judgment rendered by the same or by a different court, and a consecutive term of imprisonment is imposed under Sections 669 and 1170, the aggregate term of imprisonment for all these convictions shall be the sum of the principal term, the subordinate term, and any additional term imposed for applicable enhancements for prior convictions, prior prison terms, and Section 12022.1. The principal term shall consist of the greatest term of imprisonment imposed by the court for any of the crimes, including any term imposed for applicable specific enhancements. The subordinate term for each consecutive offense shall consist of one-third of the middle term of imprisonment prescribed for each other felony conviction for which a consecutive term of imprisonment is imposed, and shall include one-third of the term imposed for any specific enhancements applicable to those subordinate offenses. Whenever a court imposes a term of imprisonment in the state prison, whether the term is a principal or subordinate term, the aggregate term shall be served in the state prison, regardless as to whether or not one of the terms specifies imprisonment in a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(b) If a person is convicted of two or more violations of kidnapping, as defined in Section 207, involving separate victims, the subordinate term for each consecutive offense of kidnapping shall consist of the full middle term and shall include the full term imposed for specific enhancements applicable to those subordinate offenses.

(c) In the case of any person convicted of one or more felonies committed while the person is confined in the state prison or is subject to reimprisonment for escape from custody and the law either requires the terms to be served consecutively or the court imposes consecutive terms, the term of imprisonment for all the convictions that the person is required to serve consecutively shall commence from the time the person would otherwise have been released from prison. If the new offenses are consecutive with each other, the principal and subordinate terms shall be calculated as provided in subdivision (a). This subdivision shall be applicable in cases of convictions of more than one offense in the same or different proceedings.

(d) When the court imposes a sentence for a felony pursuant to Section 1170 or subdivision (b) of Section 1168, the court shall also impose, in addition and consecutive to the offense of which the person has been convicted, the additional terms provided for any applicable enhancements. If an enhancement is punishable by one of three terms, the court shall, in its discretion, impose the term that best serves the interest of justice, and state the reasons for its sentence choice on the record at the time of sentencing. The court shall also impose any other additional term that the court determines in its discretion or as required by law shall run consecutive to the term imposed under Section 1170 or subdivision (b) of Section 1168. In considering the imposition of the additional term, the court shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council.

(e) All enhancements shall be alleged in the accusatory pleading and either admitted by the defendant in open court or found to be true by the trier of fact.

(f) When two or more enhancements may be imposed for being armed with or using a dangerous or deadly weapon or a firearm in the commission of a single offense, only the greatest of those enhancements shall be imposed for that offense. This subdivision shall not limit the imposition of any other enhancements applicable to that offense, including an enhancement for the infliction of great bodily injury.

(g) When two or more enhancements may be imposed for the infliction of great bodily injury on the same victim in the commission of a single offense, only the greatest of those enhancements shall be imposed for that offense. This subdivision shall not limit the imposition of any other enhancements applicable to that offense, including an enhancement for being armed with or using a dangerous or deadly weapon or a firearm.

(h) For any violation of an offense specified in Section 667.6, the number of enhancements that may be imposed shall not be limited, regardless of whether the enhancements are pursuant to this section, Section 667.6, or some other provision of law. Each of the enhancements shall be a full and separately served term.

(i) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2022, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2022, deletes or extends that date.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 508, Sec. 7) by Stats. 2016, Ch. 887, Sec. 7. (SB 1016) Effective January 1, 2017. Repealed as of January 1, 2022, by its own provisions. See later operative version, as amended by Sec. 8 of Stats. 2016, Ch. 887.)

1170.1.

(a) Except as otherwise provided by law, and subject to Section 654, when any person is convicted of two or more felonies, whether in the same proceeding or court or in different proceedings or courts, and whether by judgment rendered by the same or by a different court, and a consecutive term of imprisonment is imposed under Sections 669 and 1170, the aggregate term of imprisonment for all these convictions shall be the sum of the principal term, the subordinate term, and any additional term imposed for applicable enhancements for prior convictions, prior prison terms, and Section 12022.1. The principal term shall consist of the greatest term of imprisonment imposed by the court for any of the crimes, including any term imposed for applicable specific enhancements. The subordinate term for each consecutive offense shall consist of one-third of the middle term of imprisonment prescribed for each other felony conviction for which a consecutive term of imprisonment is imposed, and shall include one-third of the term imposed for any specific enhancements applicable to those subordinate offenses. Whenever a court imposes a term of imprisonment in the state prison, whether the term is a principal or subordinate term, the aggregate term shall be served in the state prison, regardless as to whether or not one of the terms specifies imprisonment in a county jail pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(b) If a person is convicted of two or more violations of kidnapping, as defined in Section 207, involving separate victims, the subordinate term for each consecutive offense of kidnapping shall consist of the full middle term and shall include the full term imposed for specific enhancements applicable to those subordinate offenses.

(c) In the case of any person convicted of one or more felonies committed while the person is confined in the state prison or is subject to reimprisonment for escape from custody and the law either requires the terms to be served consecutively or the court imposes consecutive terms, the term of imprisonment for all the convictions that the person is required to serve consecutively shall commence from the time the person would otherwise have been released from prison. If the new offenses are consecutive with each other, the principal and subordinate terms shall be calculated as provided in subdivision (a). This subdivision shall be applicable in cases of convictions of more than one offense in the same or different proceedings.

(d) When the court imposes a sentence for a felony pursuant to Section 1170 or subdivision (b) of Section 1168, the court shall also impose, in addition and consecutive to the offense of which the person has been convicted, the additional terms provided for any applicable enhancements. If an enhancement is punishable by one of three terms, the court shall impose the middle term unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation, and state the reasons for its sentence choice, other than the middle term, on the record at the time of sentencing. The court shall also impose any other additional term that the court determines in its discretion or as required by law shall run consecutive to the term imposed under Section 1170 or subdivision (b) of Section 1168. In considering the imposition of the additional term, the court shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council.

(e) All enhancements shall be alleged in the accusatory pleading and either admitted by the defendant in open court or found to be true by the trier of fact.

(f) When two or more enhancements may be imposed for being armed with or using a dangerous or deadly weapon or a firearm in the commission of a single offense, only the greatest of those enhancements shall be imposed for that offense. This subdivision shall not limit the imposition of any other enhancements applicable to that offense, including an enhancement for the infliction of great bodily injury.

(g) When two or more enhancements may be imposed for the infliction of great bodily injury on the same victim in the commission of a single offense, only the greatest of those enhancements shall be imposed for that offense. This subdivision shall not limit the imposition of any other enhancements applicable to that offense, including an enhancement for being armed with or using a dangerous or deadly weapon or a firearm.

(h) For any violation of an offense specified in Section 667.6, the number of enhancements that may be imposed shall not be limited, regardless of whether the enhancements are pursuant to this section, Section 667.6, or some other provision of law. Each of the enhancements shall be a full and separately served term.

(i) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2022.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 508, Sec. 8) by Stats. 2016, Ch. 887, Sec. 8. (SB 1016) Effective January 1, 2017. Section operative January 1, 2022, by its own provisions.)

1170.11.

As used in Section 1170.1, the term “specific enhancement” means an enhancement that relates to the circumstances of the crime. It includes, but is not limited to, the enhancements provided in Sections 186.10, 186.11, 186.22, 186.26, 186.33, 192.5, 273.4, 289.5, 290.4, 290.45, 290.46, 347, and 368, subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 422.75, paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 451.1, paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 452.1, subdivision (g) of Section 550, Sections 593a, 600, 667.8, 667.85, 667.9, 667.10, 667.15, 667.16, 667.17, 674, 675, 12021.5, 12022, 12022.2, 12022.3, 12022.4, 12022.5, 12022.53, 12022.55, 12022.6, 12022.7, 12022.75, 12022.8, 12022.85, 12022.9, 12022.95, 27590, 30600, and 30615 of this code, and in Sections 1522.01 and 11353.1, subdivision (b) of Section 11353.4, Sections 11353.6, 11356.5, 11370.4, 11379.7, 11379.8, 11379.9, 11380.1, 11380.7, 25189.5, and 25189.7 of the Health and Safety Code, and in Sections 20001 and 23558 of the Vehicle Code, and in Sections 10980 and 14107 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 178, Sec. 71. (SB 1115) Effective January 1, 2011. Operative January 1, 2012, by Sec. 107 of Ch. 178.)

1170.12.

Aggregate and consecutive terms for multiple convictions; prior conviction as prior felony; commitment and other enhancements or punishment.

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, if a defendant has been convicted of a felony and it has been pled and proved that the defendant has one or more prior serious or violent felony convictions, as defined in subdivision (b), the court shall adhere to each of the following:

(1) There shall not be an aggregate term limitation for purposes of consecutive sentencing for any subsequent felony conviction.

(2) Probation for the current offense shall not be granted, nor shall execution or imposition of the sentence be suspended for any prior offense.

(3) The length of time between the prior serious or violent felony conviction and the current felony conviction shall not affect the imposition of sentence.

(4) There shall not be a commitment to any other facility other than the state prison. Diversion shall not be granted nor shall the defendant be eligible for commitment to the California Rehabilitation Center as provided in Article 2 (commencing with Section 3050) of Chapter 1 of Division 3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(5) The total amount of credits awarded pursuant to Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 2930) of Chapter 7 of Title 1 of Part 3 shall not exceed one-fifth of the total term of imprisonment imposed and shall not accrue until the defendant is physically placed in the state prison.

(6) If there is a current conviction for more than one felony count not committed on the same occasion, and not arising from the same set of operative facts, the court shall sentence the defendant consecutively on each count pursuant to this section.

(7) If there is a current conviction for more than one serious or violent felony as described in subdivision (b), the court shall impose the sentence for each conviction consecutive to the sentence for any other conviction for which the defendant may be consecutively sentenced in the manner prescribed by law.

(b) Notwithstanding any other law and for the purposes of this section, a prior serious or violent conviction of a felony is defined as:

(1) Any offense defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 as a violent felony or any offense defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 as a serious felony in this state. The determination of whether a prior conviction is a prior serious and/or violent felony conviction for purposes of this section shall be made upon the date of that prior conviction and is not affected by the sentence imposed unless the sentence automatically, upon the initial sentencing, converts the felony to a misdemeanor. The following dispositions shall not affect the determination that a prior serious or violent conviction is a serious or violent felony for purposes of this section:

(A) The suspension of imposition of judgment or sentence.

(B) The stay of execution of sentence.

(C) The commitment to the State Department of Health Services as a mentally disordered sex offender following a conviction of a felony.

(D) The commitment to the California Rehabilitation Center or any other facility whose function is rehabilitative diversion from the state prison.

(2) A prior conviction in another jurisdiction for an offense that, if committed in California, is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison constitutes a prior conviction of a particular serious or violent felony if the prior conviction in the other jurisdiction is for an offense that includes all of the elements of the particular violent felony as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 or serious felony as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7.

(3) A prior juvenile adjudication constitutes a prior serious or violent felony conviction for the purposes of sentence enhancement if:

(A) The juvenile was 16 years of age or older at the time the juvenile committed the prior offense, and

(B) The prior offense is

(i) listed in subdivision (b) of Section 707 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or

(ii) listed in this subdivision as a serious or violent felony, and

(C) The juvenile was found to be a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, and

(D) The juvenile was adjudged a ward of the juvenile court within the meaning of Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code because the person committed an offense listed in subdivision (b) of Section 707 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(c) For purposes of this section, and in addition to any other enhancements or punishment provisions which may apply, the following apply if a defendant has one or more prior serious or violent felony convictions:

(1) If a defendant has one prior serious or violent felony conviction as defined in subdivision (b) that has been pled and proved, the determinate term or minimum term for an indeterminate term shall be twice the term otherwise provided as punishment for the current felony conviction.

(2) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), if a defendant has two or more prior serious or violent felony convictions, as defined in subdivision (b), that have been pled and proved, the term for the current felony conviction shall be an indeterminate term of life imprisonment with a minimum term of the indeterminate sentence calculated as the greatest of:

(i) three times the term otherwise provided as punishment for each current felony conviction subsequent to the two or more prior serious or violent felony convictions, or

(ii) twenty-five years or

(iii) the term determined by the court pursuant to Section 1170 for the underlying conviction, including any enhancement applicable under Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1170) of Title 7 of Part 2, or any period prescribed by Section 190 or 3046.

(B) The indeterminate term described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of this subdivision shall be served consecutive to any other term of imprisonment for which a consecutive term may be imposed by law. Any other term imposed subsequent to any indeterminate term described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of this subdivision shall not be merged therein but shall commence at the time the person would otherwise have been released from prison.

(C) If a defendant has two or more prior serious or violent felony convictions as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 or subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7 that have been pled and proved, and the current offense is not a felony described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of this section, the defendant shall be sentenced pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) of this section, unless the prosecution pleads and proves any of the following:

(i) The current offense is a controlled substance charge, in which an allegation under Section 11370.4 or 11379.8 of the Health and Safety Code was admitted or found true.

(ii) The current offense is a felony sex offense, defined in subdivision (d) of Section 261.5 or Section 262, or any felony offense that results in mandatory registration as a sex offender pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 290 except for violations of Sections 266 and 285, paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) and subdivision (e) of Section 286, paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) and subdivision (e) of Section 287, Section 314, and Section 311.11.

(iii) During the commission of the current offense, the defendant used a firearm, was armed with a firearm or deadly weapon, or intended to cause great bodily injury to another person.

(iv) The defendant suffered a prior conviction, as defined in subdivision (b) of this section, for any of the following serious or violent felonies:

(I) A “sexually violent offense” as defined by subdivision (b) of Section 6600 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(II) Oral copulation with a child who is under 14 years of age, and who is more than 10 years younger than the defendant as defined by Section 287 or former Section 288a, sodomy with another person who is under 14 years of age and more than 10 years younger than the defendant as defined by Section 286 or sexual penetration with another person who is under 14 years of age, and who is more than 10 years younger than the defendant, as defined by Section 289.

(III) A lewd or lascivious act involving a child under 14 years of age, in violation of Section 288.

(IV) Any homicide offense, including any attempted homicide offense, defined in Sections 187 to 191.5, inclusive.

(V) Solicitation to commit murder as defined in Section 653f.

(VI) Assault with a machinegun on a peace officer or firefighter, as defined in paragraph (3) of subdivision (d) of Section 245.

(VII) Possession of a weapon of mass destruction, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 11418.

(VIII) Any serious or violent felony offense punishable in California by life imprisonment or death.

(d) (1) Notwithstanding any other law, this section shall be applied in every case in which a defendant has one or more prior serious and/or violent felony convictions as defined in this section. The prosecuting attorney shall plead and prove each prior serious or violent felony conviction except as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) The prosecuting attorney may move to dismiss or strike a prior serious or violent felony conviction allegation in the furtherance of justice pursuant to Section 1385, or if there is insufficient evidence to prove the prior serious or violent conviction. If upon the satisfaction of the court that there is insufficient evidence to prove the prior serious or violent felony conviction, the court may dismiss or strike the allegation. This section shall not be read to alter a court’s authority under Section 1385.

(e) Prior serious or violent felony convictions shall not be used in plea bargaining, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 1192.7. The prosecution shall plead and prove all known prior serious or violent felony convictions and shall not enter into any agreement to strike or seek the dismissal of any prior serious or violent felony conviction allegation except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d).

(f) If any provision of subdivisions (a) to (e), inclusive, or of Section 1170.126, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, that invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of those subdivisions which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of those subdivisions are severable.

(g) The provisions of this section shall not be amended by the Legislature except by statute passed in each house by rollcall vote entered in the journal, two-thirds of the membership concurring, or by a statute that becomes effective only when approved by the electors.

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 497, Sec. 204. (AB 991) Effective January 1, 2020. Note: This section was added on Nov. 8, 1994, by initiative Prop. 184.)

1170.125.

Notwithstanding Section 2 of Proposition 184, as adopted at the November 8, 1994, General Election, for all offenses committed on or after November 7, 2012, all references to existing statutes in Sections 1170.12 and 1170.126 are to those sections as they existed on November 7, 2012.

(Amended November 6, 2012, by initiative Proposition 36, Sec. 5. Note: This section was added on March 7, 2000, by initiative Prop. 21.)

1170.126.

(a) The resentencing provisions under this section and related statutes are intended to apply exclusively to persons presently serving an indeterminate term of imprisonment pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12, whose sentence under this act would not have been an indeterminate life sentence.

(b) Any person serving an indeterminate term of life imprisonment imposed pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12 upon conviction, whether by trial or plea, of a felony or felonies that are not defined as serious and/or violent felonies by subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 or subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7, may file a petition for a recall of sentence, within two years after the effective date of the act that added this section or at a later date upon a showing of good cause, before the trial court that entered the judgment of conviction in his or her case, to request resentencing in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (e) of Section 667, and subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12, as those statutes have been amended by the act that added this section.

(c) No person who is presently serving a term of imprisonment for a “second strike” conviction imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12, shall be eligible for resentencing under the provisions of this section.

(d) The petition for a recall of sentence described in subdivision (b) shall specify all of the currently charged felonies, which resulted in the sentence under paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12, or both, and shall also specify all of the prior convictions alleged and proved under subdivision (d) of Section 667 and subdivision (b) of Section 1170.12.

(e) An inmate is eligible for resentencing if:

(1) The inmate is serving an indeterminate term of life imprisonment imposed pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12 for a conviction of a felony or felonies that are not defined as serious and/or violent felonies by subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 or subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7.

(2) The inmate’s current sentence was not imposed for any of the offenses appearing in clauses (i) to (iii), inclusive, of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or clauses (i) to (iii), inclusive, of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12.

(3) The inmate has no prior convictions for any of the offenses appearing in clause (iv) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or clause (iv) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12.

(f) Upon receiving a petition for recall of sentence under this section, the court shall determine whether the petitioner satisfies the criteria in subdivision (e). If the petitioner satisfies the criteria in subdivision (e), the petitioner shall be resentenced pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 and paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) of Section 1170.12 unless the court, in its discretion, determines that resentencing the petitioner would pose an unreasonable risk of danger to public safety.

(g) In exercising its discretion in subdivision (f), the court may consider:

(1) The petitioner’s criminal conviction history, including the type of crimes committed, the extent of injury to victims, the length of prior prison commitments, and the remoteness of the crimes;

(2) The petitioner’s disciplinary record and record of rehabilitation while incarcerated; and

(3) Any other evidence the court, within its discretion, determines to be relevant in deciding whether a new sentence would result in an unreasonable risk of danger to public safety.

(h) Under no circumstances may resentencing under this act result in the imposition of a term longer than the original sentence.

(i) Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of Section 977, a defendant petitioning for resentencing may waive his or her appearance in court for the resentencing, provided that the accusatory pleading is not amended at the resentencing, and that no new trial or retrial of the individual will occur. The waiver shall be in writing and signed by the defendant.

(j) If the court that originally sentenced the defendant is not available to resentence the defendant, the presiding judge shall designate another judge to rule on the defendant’s petition.

(k) Nothing in this section is intended to diminish or abrogate any rights or remedies otherwise available to the defendant.

(l) Nothing in this and related sections is intended to diminish or abrogate the finality of judgments in any case not falling within the purview of this act.

(m) A resentencing hearing ordered under this act shall constitute a “post-conviction release proceeding” under paragraph (7) of subdivision (b) of Section 28 of Article I of the California Constitution (Marsy’s Law).

(Added November 6, 2012, by initiative Proposition 36, Sec. 6. Note: Prop. 36 is titled the Three Strikes Reform Act of 2012.)

1170.127.

(a) A person who is committed to a state hospital after being found not guilty by reason of insanity pursuant to Section 1026 may petition the court to have his or her maximum term of commitment, as established by Section 1026.5, reduced to the length it would have been had Section 1170.126 been in effect at the time of the original determination. Both of the following conditions are required for the maximum term of commitment to be reduced:

(1) The person would have met all of the criteria for a reduction in sentence pursuant to Section 1170.126 had he or she been found guilty.

(2) The person files the petition for a reduction of the maximum term of commitment before January 1, 2021, or on a later date upon a showing of good cause.

(b) If a petitioner’s maximum term of confinement is ordered reduced under this section, the new term of confinement must provide opportunity to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5. If a petitioner’s new maximum term of confinement ordered under this section does not provide sufficient time to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5, the new maximum term of confinement may be extended, not more than 240 days from the date the petition is granted, in order to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 17, Sec. 25. (AB 103) Effective June 27, 2017.)

1170.13.

Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 1170.1 which provides for the imposition of a subordinate term for a consecutive offense of one-third of the middle term of imprisonment, if a person is convicted pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 139, the subordinate term for each consecutive offense shall consist of the full middle term.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 926, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1170.15.

Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 1170.1 which provides for the imposition of a subordinate term for a consecutive offense of one-third of the middle term of imprisonment, if a person is convicted of a felony, and of an additional felony that is a violation of Section 136.1 or 137 and that was committed against the victim of, or a witness or potential witness with respect to, or a person who was about to give material information pertaining to, the first felony, or of a felony violation of Section 653f that was committed to dissuade a witness or potential witness to the first felony, the subordinate term for each consecutive offense that is a felony described in this section shall consist of the full middle term of imprisonment for the felony for which a consecutive term of imprisonment is imposed, and shall include the full term prescribed for any enhancements imposed for being armed with or using a dangerous or deadly weapon or a firearm, or for inflicting great bodily injury.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 926, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1170.16.

In lieu of the term provided in Section 1170.1, a full, separate, and consecutive term may be imposed for each violation of subdivision (a) of Section 192, whether or not the offenses were committed during a single transaction.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 421, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1997.)

1170.17.

(a) When a person is prosecuted for a criminal offense committed while he or she was under 18 years of age and the prosecution was lawfully initiated in a court of criminal jurisdiction without a prior finding that the person is not a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, upon subsequent conviction for any criminal offense, the person shall be subject to the same sentence as an adult convicted of the identical offense, in accordance with subdivision (a) of Section 1170.19, except under the circumstances described in subdivision (b), (c), or (d).

(b) Where the conviction is for the type of offense which, in combination with the person’s age at the time the offense was committed, makes the person eligible for transfer to a court of criminal jurisdiction, pursuant to a rebuttable presumption that the person is not a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, and the prosecution for the offense could not lawfully be initiated in a court of criminal jurisdiction, then either of the following shall apply:

(1) The person shall be subject to the same sentence as an adult convicted of the identical offense in accordance with the provisions set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 1170.19, unless the person prevails upon a motion brought pursuant to paragraph (2).

(2) Upon a motion brought by the person, the court shall order the probation department to prepare a written social study and recommendation concerning the person’s fitness to be dealt with under the juvenile court law and the court shall either conduct a fitness hearing or suspend proceedings and remand the matter to the juvenile court to prepare a social study and make a determination of fitness. The person shall receive a disposition under the juvenile court law only if the person demonstrates, by a preponderance of the evidence, that he or she is a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, based upon each of the following five criteria:

(A) The degree of criminal sophistication exhibited by the person. This may include, but is not limited to, giving weight to the person’s age, maturity, intellectual capacity, and physical, mental, and emotional health at the time of the offense, the person’s impetuosity or failure to appreciate risks and consequences of criminal behavior, the effect of familial, adult, or peer pressure on the person’s actions, and the effect of the person’s family and community environment and childhood trauma on the person’s criminal sophistication.

(B) Whether the person can be rehabilitated prior to the expiration of the juvenile court’s jurisdiction. This may include, but is not limited to, giving weight to the minor’s potential to grow and mature.

(C) The person’s previous delinquent history. This may include, but is not limited to, giving weight to the seriousness of the person’s previous delinquent history and the effect of the person’s family and community environment and childhood trauma on the person’s previous delinquent behavior.

(D) Success of previous attempts by the juvenile court to rehabilitate the person. This may include, but is not limited to, giving weight to an analysis of the adequacy of the services previously provided to address the person’s needs.

(E) The circumstances and gravity of the offense for which the person has been convicted. This may include, but is not limited to, giving weight to the actual behavior of the person, the mental state of the person, the person’s degree of involvement in the crime, the level of harm actually caused by the person, and the person’s mental and emotional development.

If the court conducting the fitness hearing finds that the person is not a fit and proper subject for juvenile court jurisdiction, then the person shall be sentenced by the court where he or she was convicted, in accordance with paragraph (1). If the court conducting the hearing on fitness finds that the person is a fit and proper subject for juvenile court jurisdiction, then the person shall be subject to a disposition in accordance with subdivision (b) of Section 1170.19.

(c) Where the conviction is for the type of offense which, in combination with the person’s age at the time the offense was committed, makes the person eligible for transfer to a court of criminal jurisdiction, pursuant to a rebuttable presumption that the person is a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, then the person shall be sentenced as follows:

(1) The person shall be subject to a disposition under the juvenile court law, in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 1170.19, unless the district attorney prevails upon a motion, as described in paragraph (2).

(2) Upon a motion brought by the district attorney, the court shall order the probation department to prepare a written social study and recommendation concerning whether the person is a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law. The court shall either conduct a fitness hearing or suspend proceedings and remand the matter to the juvenile court for a determination of fitness. The person shall be subject to a juvenile disposition under the juvenile court law unless the district attorney demonstrates, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the person is not a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, based upon the five criteria set forth in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b). If the person is found to be not a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, then the person shall be sentenced in the court where he or she was convicted, in accordance with the provisions set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 1170.19. If the person is found to be a fit and proper subject to be dealt with under the juvenile court law, the person shall be subject to a disposition, in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 1170.19.

(d) Where the conviction is for the type of offense which, in combination with the person’s age, does not make the person eligible for transfer to a court of criminal jurisdiction, the person shall be subject to a disposition in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 1170.19.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 234, Sec. 1. (SB 382) Effective January 1, 2016.)

1170.18.

(a) A person who, on November 5, 2014, was serving a sentence for a conviction, whether by trial or plea, of a felony or felonies who would have been guilty of a misdemeanor under the act that added this section (“this act”) had this act been in effect at the time of the offense may petition for a recall of sentence before the trial court that entered the judgment of conviction in his or her case to request resentencing in accordance with Sections 11350, 11357, or 11377 of the Health and Safety Code, or Section 459.5, 473, 476a, 490.2, 496, or 666 of the Penal Code, as those sections have been amended or added by this act.

(b) Upon receiving a petition under subdivision (a), the court shall determine whether the petitioner satisfies the criteria in subdivision (a). If the petitioner satisfies the criteria in subdivision (a), the petitioner’s felony sentence shall be recalled and the petitioner resentenced to a misdemeanor pursuant to Sections 11350, 11357, or 11377 of the Health and Safety Code, or Section 459.5, 473, 476a, 490.2, 496, or 666 of the Penal Code, as those sections have been amended or added by this act, unless the court, in its discretion, determines that resentencing the petitioner would pose an unreasonable risk of danger to public safety. In exercising its discretion, the court may consider all of the following:

(1) The petitioner’s criminal conviction history, including the type of crimes committed, the extent of injury to victims, the length of prior prison commitments, and the remoteness of the crimes.

(2) The petitioner’s disciplinary record and record of rehabilitation while incarcerated.

(3) Any other evidence the court, within its discretion, determines to be relevant in deciding whether a new sentence would result in an unreasonable risk of danger to public safety.

(c) As used throughout this code, “unreasonable risk of danger to public safety” means an unreasonable risk that the petitioner will commit a new violent felony within the meaning of clause (iv) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667.

(d) A person who is resentenced pursuant to subdivision (b) shall be given credit for time served and shall be subject to parole for one year following completion of his or her sentence, unless the court, in its discretion, as part of its resentencing order, releases the person from parole. The person is subject to parole supervision by the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation pursuant to Section 3000.08 and the jurisdiction of the court in the county in which the parolee is released or resides, or in which an alleged violation of supervision has occurred, for the purpose of hearing petitions to revoke parole and impose a term of custody.

(e) Resentencing pursuant to this section shall not result in the imposition of a term longer than the original sentence.

(f) A person who has completed his or her sentence for a conviction, whether by trial or plea, of a felony or felonies who would have been guilty of a misdemeanor under this act had this act been in effect at the time of the offense, may file an application before the trial court that entered the judgment of conviction in his or her case to have the felony conviction or convictions designated as misdemeanors.

(g) If the application satisfies the criteria in subdivision (f), the court shall designate the felony offense or offenses as a misdemeanor.

(h) Unless the applicant requests a hearing, a hearing is not necessary to grant or deny an application filed under subdivision (f).

(i) This section does not apply to a person who has one or more prior convictions for an offense specified in clause (iv) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 or for an offense requiring registration pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 290.

(j) Except as specified in subdivision (p), a petition or application under this section shall be filed on or before November 4, 2022, or at a later date upon showing of good cause.

(k) A felony conviction that is recalled and resentenced under subdivision (b) or designated as a misdemeanor under subdivision (g) shall be considered a misdemeanor for all purposes, except that resentencing shall not permit that person to own, possess, or have in his or her custody or control a firearm or prevent his or her conviction under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 29800) of Division 9 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(l) If the court that originally sentenced the petitioner is not available, the presiding judge shall designate another judge to rule on the petition or application.

(m) This section does not diminish or abrogate any rights or remedies otherwise available to the petitioner or applicant.

(n) Resentencing pursuant to this section does not diminish or abrogate the finality of judgments in any case that does not come within the purview of this section.

(o) A resentencing hearing ordered under this section shall constitute a “post‑conviction release proceeding” under paragraph (7) of subdivision (b) of Section 28 of Article I of the California Constitution (Marsy’s Law).

(p) (1) A person who is committed to a state hospital after being found not guilty by reason of insanity pursuant to Section 1026 may petition the court to have his or her maximum term of commitment, as established by Section 1026.5, reduced to the length it would have been had the act that added this section been in effect at the time of the original determination. Both of the following conditions are required for the maximum term of commitment to be reduced.

(A) The person would have met all of the criteria for a reduction in sentence pursuant to this section had he or she been found guilty.

(B) The person files the petition for a reduction of the maximum term of commitment before January 1, 2021, or on a later date upon a showing of good cause.

(2) If a petitioner’s maximum term of confinement is ordered reduced under this subdivision, the new term of confinement must provide opportunity to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5. If a petitioner’s new maximum term of confinement ordered under this section does not provide sufficient time to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5, the new maximum term of confinement may be extended, not more than 240 days from the date the petition is granted, in order to meet requirements provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1026.5.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 17, Sec. 26. (AB 103) Effective June 27, 2017. Note: This section was added on Nov. 4, 2014, by initiative Prop. 47.)

1170.19.

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the following shall apply to a person sentenced pursuant to Section 1170.17.

(1) The person may be committed to the Youth Authority only to the extent the person meets the eligibility criteria set forth in Section 1732.6 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(2) The person shall not be housed in any facility under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections, if the person is under the age of 16 years.

(3) The person shall have his or her criminal court records accorded the same degree of public access as the records pertaining to the conviction of an adult for the identical offense.

(4) Subject to the knowing and intelligent consent of both the prosecution and the person being sentenced pursuant to this section, the court may order a juvenile disposition under the juvenile court law, in lieu of a sentence under this code, upon a finding that such an order would serve the best interests of justice, protection of the community, and the person being sentenced. Prior to ordering a juvenile disposition, the court shall cause to be received into evidence a social study by the probation officer, prepared pursuant to Section 706 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, and shall state that the social study made by the probation officer has been read and considered by the court.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the following shall apply to a person who is eligible to receive a juvenile disposition pursuant to Section 1170.17.

(1) The person shall be entitled a hearing on the proper disposition of the case, conducted in accordance with the provisions of Section 706 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. The court in which the conviction occurred shall order the probation department to prepare a written social study and recommendation concerning the proper disposition of the case, prior to conducting the hearing or remand the matter to the juvenile court for purposes of preparing the social study, conducting the disposition hearing pursuant to Section 706 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, and making a disposition order under the juvenile court law.

(2) The person shall have his or her conviction deemed to be a finding of delinquency wardship under Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(3) The person shall have his or her criminal court records accorded the same degree of confidentiality as if the matter had been initially prosecuted as a delinquency petition in the juvenile court.

(4) Subject to the knowing and intelligent consent of both the prosecution and the person being sentenced pursuant to this section, the court may impose an adult sentence under this code, in lieu of ordering a juvenile disposition under the juvenile court law, upon a finding that such an order would serve the best interests of justice, protection of the community, and the person being sentenced. Prior to ordering an adult sentence, the court shall cause to be received into evidence a social study by the probation officer, prepared pursuant to Section 706 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, and shall state that the social study prepared by the probation officer has been read and considered by the court.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 996, Sec. 12.1. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1170.2.

(a) In the case of any inmate who committed a felony prior to July 1, 1977, who would have been sentenced under Section 1170 if he or she had committed it after July 1, 1977, the Board of Prison Terms shall determine what the length of time of imprisonment would have been under Section 1170 without consideration of good-time credit and utilizing the middle term of the offense bearing the longest term of imprisonment of which the prisoner was convicted increased by any enhancements justified by matters found to be true and which were imposed by the court at the time of sentencing for such felony. These matters include: being armed with a deadly or dangerous weapon as specified in Section 211a, 460, 3024, or 12022 prior to July 1, 1977, which may result in a one-year enhancement pursuant to the provisions of Section 12022; using a firearm as specified in Section 12022.5 prior to July 1, 1977, which may result in a two-year enhancement pursuant to the provisions of Section 12022.5; infliction of great bodily injury as specified in Section 213, 264, or 461 prior to July 1, 1977, which may result in a three-year enhancement pursuant to the provisions of Section 12022.7; any prior felony conviction as specified in any statute prior to July 1, 1977, which prior felony conviction is the equivalent of a prior prison term as defined in Section 667.5, which may result in the appropriate enhancement pursuant to the provisions of Section 667.5; and any consecutive sentence.

5. The Board of Prison Terms shall notify each prisoner who is scheduled for such a hearing within 90 days of July 1, 1977, or within 90 days of the date the prisoner is received by or returned to the custody of the Department of Corrections, whichever is later. The hearing shall be held before October 1, 1978, or within 120 days of receipt of the prisoner, whichever is later. It is the intent of the Legislature that the hearings provided for in this subdivision shall be accomplished in the most expeditious manner possible. At the hearing the prisoner shall be entitled to be represented by legal counsel, a release date shall be set, and the prisoner shall be informed in writing of the extraordinary factors specifically considered determinative and on what basis the release date has been calculated. In fixing a term under this section the board shall be guided by, but not limited to, the term which reasonably could be imposed on a person who committed a similar offense under similar circumstances on or after July 1, 1977, and further, the board shall be guided by the following finding and declaration hereby made by the Legislature: that the necessity to protect the public from repetition of extraordinary crimes of violence against the person is the paramount consideration.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to keep an inmate in the custody of the Department of Corrections for a period of time longer than he would have been kept in its custody under the provisions of law applicable to him prior to July 1, 1977. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to require the release of an inmate sentenced to consecutive sentences under the provisions of law applicable to him prior to July 1, 1977, earlier than if he had been sentenced to concurrent sentences.

(d) In the case of any prisoner who committed a felony prior to July 1, 1977, who would have been sentenced under Section 1170 if the felony was committed on or after July 1, 1977, the good behavior and participation provisions of Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 2930) of Chapter 7 of Title 1 of Part 3 shall apply from July 1, 1977, and thereafter.

(e) In the case of any inmate who committed a felony prior to July 1, 1977, who would have been sentenced under Section 1168 if the felony was committed on or after July 1, 1977, the Board of Prison Terms shall provide for release from prison as provided for by this code.

(f) In the case of any inmate who committed a felony prior to July 1, 1977, the length, conditions, revocation, and other incidents of parole shall be the same as if the prisoner had been sentenced for an offense committed on or after July 1, 1977.

(g) Nothing in this chapter shall affect the eligibility for parole under Article 3 (commencing with Section 3040) of Chapter 8 of Title 1 of Part 3 of an inmate sentenced pursuant to Section 1168 as operative prior to July 1, 1977, for a period of parole as specified in subdivision (b) of Section 3000.

(h) In fixing a term under this section, the Board of Prison Terms shall utilize the terms of imprisonment as provided in Chapter 1139 of the Statutes of 1976 and Chapter 165 of the Statutes of 1977.

(Amended by Stats. 1989, Ch. 568, Sec. 1.5.)

1170.21.

A conviction for a violation of Section 647f as it read on December 31, 2017, is invalid and vacated. All charges alleging violation of Section 647f are dismissed and all arrests for violation of Section 647f are deemed to have never occurred. An individual who was arrested, charged, or convicted for a violation of Section 647f may indicate in response to any question concerning his or her prior arrest, charge, or conviction under Section 647f that he or she was not arrested, charged, or convicted for a violation of Section 647f. Notwithstanding any other law, information pertaining to an individual’s arrest, charge, or conviction for violation of Section 647f shall not, without the individual’s consent, be used in any way adverse to his or her interests, including, but not limited to, denial of any employment, benefit, license, or certificate.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 537, Sec. 13. (SB 239) Effective January 1, 2018.)

1170.22.

(a) A person who is serving a sentence as a result of a violation of Section 647f as it read on December 31, 2017, whether by trial or by open or negotiated plea, may petition for a recall or dismissal of sentence before the trial court that entered the judgment of conviction in his or her case.

(b) If the court’s records show that the petitioner was convicted for a violation of Section 647f as it read on December 31, 2017, the court shall vacate the conviction and resentence the person for any remaining counts.

(c) A person who is serving a sentence and resentenced pursuant to subdivision (b) shall be given credit for any time already served and shall be subject to whatever supervision time he or she would have otherwise been subject to after release, whichever is shorter, unless the court, in its discretion, as part of its resentencing order, releases the person from supervision.

(d) Under no circumstances may resentencing under this section result in the imposition of a term longer than the original sentence, or the reinstatement of charges dismissed pursuant to a negotiated plea agreement.

(e) Upon completion of sentence for a conviction under Section 647f as it read on December 31, 2017, the provisions of Section 1170.21 shall apply.

(f) Nothing in this and related sections is intended to diminish or abrogate the finality of judgments in any case not falling within the purview of this section.

(g) A resentencing hearing ordered under this section shall constitute a “post-conviction release proceeding” under paragraph (7) of subdivision (b) of Section 28 of Article I of the California Constitution.

(h) The provisions of this section apply to juvenile delinquency adjudications and dispositions under Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code if the juvenile would not have been guilty of an offense or would not have been guilty of an offense governed by this section.

(i) The Judicial Council shall promulgate and make available all necessary forms to enable the filing of petitions and applications provided in this section.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 537, Sec. 14. (SB 239) Effective January 1, 2018.)

1170.3.

The Judicial Council shall seek to promote uniformity in sentencing under Section 1170 by:

(a) The adoption of rules providing criteria for the consideration of the trial judge at the time of sentencing regarding the court’s decision to:

(1) Grant or deny probation.

(2) Impose the lower, middle, or upper prison term.

(3) Impose the lower, middle, or upper term pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(4) Impose concurrent or consecutive sentences.

(5) Determine whether or not to impose an enhancement where that determination is permitted by law.

(6) Deny a period of mandatory supervision in the interests of justice under paragraph (5) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170 or determine the appropriate period and conditions of mandatory supervision. The rules implementing this paragraph shall be adopted no later than January 1, 2015.

(7) Determine the county or counties of incarceration and supervision when the court is imposing a judgment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 concurrent or consecutive to a judgment or judgments previously imposed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 in a county or counties.

(b) The adoption of rules standardizing the minimum content and the sequential presentation of material in probation officer reports submitted to the court regarding probation and mandatory supervision under paragraph (5) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2022, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2022, deletes or extends that date.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 887, Sec. 9) by Stats. 2017, Ch. 287, Sec. 3. (SB 670) Effective January 1, 2018. Repealed as of January 1, 2022, by its own provisions. See later operative version, as amended by Sec. 4 of Stats. 2017, Ch. 287.)

1170.3.

The Judicial Council shall seek to promote uniformity in sentencing under Section 1170 by:

(a) The adoption of rules providing criteria for the consideration of the trial judge at the time of sentencing regarding the court’s decision to:

(1) Grant or deny probation.

(2) Impose the lower or upper prison term.

(3) Impose the lower or upper term pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(4) Impose concurrent or consecutive sentences.

(5) Determine whether or not to impose an enhancement where that determination is permitted by law.

(6) Deny a period of mandatory supervision in the interests of justice under paragraph (5) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170 or determine the appropriate period and conditions of mandatory supervision. The rules implementing this paragraph shall be adopted no later than January 1, 2015.

(7) Determine the county or counties of incarceration and supervision when the court is imposing a judgment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 concurrent or consecutive to a judgment or judgments previously imposed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 in a county or counties.

(b) The adoption of rules standardizing the minimum content and the sequential presentation of material in probation officer reports submitted to the court regarding probation and mandatory supervision under paragraph (5) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2022.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 887, Sec. 10) by Stats. 2017, Ch. 287, Sec. 4. (SB 670) Effective January 1, 2018. Section operative January 1, 2022, by its own provisions.)

1170.4.

The Judicial Council shall collect and analyze relevant information relating to sentencing practices in this state and other jurisdictions. Such information shall be taken into consideration by the Judicial Council in the adoption of rules pursuant to Section 1170.3.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 909, Sec. 15. Effective January 1, 1994.)

1170.45.

The Judicial Council shall collect data on criminal cases statewide relating to the disposition of those cases according to the race and ethnicity of the defendant, and report annually thereon to the Legislature beginning no later than January 1, 1999. It is the intent of the Legislature to appropriate funds to the Judicial Council for this purpose.

(Added by Stats. 1997, Ch. 850, Sec. 48.5. Effective January 1, 1998.)

1170.5.

The Judicial Council shall conduct annual sentencing institutes for trial court judges pursuant to Section 68551 of the Government Code, toward the end of assisting the judge in the imposition of appropriate sentences.

(Added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1139.)

1170.7.

Robbery or attempted robbery for the purpose of obtaining any controlled substance, as defined in Division 10 (commencing with Section 11000) of the Health and Safety Code, when committed against a pharmacist, pharmacy employee, or other person lawfully possessing controlled substances, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 828, Sec. 67.)

1170.71.

The fact that a person who commits a violation of Section 288 has used obscene or harmful matter to induce, persuade, or encourage the minor to engage in a lewd or lascivious act shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1985, Ch. 165, Sec. 1.)

1170.72.

Upon conviction of a violation of Section 11353, 11353.5, 11353.7, 11354, 11361, or 11380 of the Health and Safety Code, or a finding of truth of an enhancing allegation pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 11353.1, Section 11353.6, or paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 11380.1, the fact that the minor was 11 years of age or younger shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation when imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1993, Ch. 131, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1994.)

1170.73.

Upon conviction of a felony violation of Section 11377, 11378, or 11378.5 of the Health and Safety Code, the court shall consider the quantity of controlled substance involved in determining whether to impose an aggravated term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 777, Sec. 1.)

1170.74.

Upon conviction of a felony violation of Section 11377, 11378, 11379, or 11379.6 of the Health and Safety Code, for an offense involving methamphetamine, the fact that the controlled substance is the crystalline form of methamphetamine shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 952, Sec. 1.)

1170.76.

The fact that a defendant who commits or attempts to commit a violation of Section 243.4, 245, or 273.5 is or has been a member of the household of a minor or of the victim of the offense, or the defendant is a marital or blood relative of the minor or the victim, or the defendant or the victim is the natural parent, adoptive parent, stepparent, or foster parent of the minor, and the offense contemporaneously occurred in the presence of, or was witnessed by, the minor shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 279, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 2006.)

1170.78.

Upon a conviction of a violation of Section 451, the fact that the person committed the offense in retaliation against the owner or occupant of the property or structure burned, or against one believed by the person to be the owner or occupant of the property or structure burned, for any eviction or other legal action taken by the owner or occupant, or believed owner or occupant, shall be a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 602, Sec. 7.)

1170.8.

(a) The fact that a robbery or an assault with a deadly weapon or instrument or by means of any force likely to produce great bodily injury was committed against a person while that person was in a church, synagogue, or building owned and occupied by a religious educational institution, or any other place primarily used as a place of worship where religious services are regularly conducted, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(b) Upon conviction of any person for a violation of Section 451 or 453, the fact that the person intentionally burned, or intended to burn, a church, synagogue, or building owned and occupied by a religious educational institution, or any other place primarily used as a place of worship where religious services are regularly conducted, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 929, Sec. 1.)

1170.81.

The fact that the intended victim of an attempted life term crime was a peace officer, as described in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 830.1, or Section 830.2, 830.5 or 830.6, while the peace officer was engaged in the performance of his or her duties, and the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the victim was a peace officer engaged in the performance of his or her duties, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 1031, Sec. 1.)

1170.82.

Upon a conviction of a violation of Section 11352, 11360, 11379, or 11379.5 of the Health and Safety Code, the fact that the person who committed the offense knew, or reasonably should have known, that any of the following circumstances existed with regard to the person to whom he or she unlawfully sold, furnished, administered, or gave away a controlled substance, shall be a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1170:

(a) The person was pregnant at the time of the selling, furnishing, administering, or giving away of the controlled substance.

(b) The person had been previously convicted of a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5.

(c) The person was in psychological treatment for a mental disorder or for substance abuse at the time of the selling, furnishing, administering, or giving away of the controlled substance.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 352, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1995.)

1170.84.

Upon conviction of any serious felony, listed in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7, it shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170 if, during the course of the serious felony, the person engaged in the tying, binding, or confining of any victim.

(Added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 1216, Sec. 1.)

1170.85.

(a) Upon conviction of any felony assault or battery offense, it shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170 if the offense was committed to prevent or dissuade a person who is or may become a witness from attending upon or testifying at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law, or if the offense was committed because the person provided assistance or information to a law enforcement officer, or to a public prosecutor in a criminal or juvenile court proceeding.

(b) Upon conviction of any felony it shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170 if the victim of an offense is particularly vulnerable, or unable to defend himself or herself, due to age or significant disability.

(Amended by Stats. 1985, Ch. 1108, Sec. 3.)

1170.86.

Upon conviction of a felony violation of Section 220, 261, 261.5, 264.1, or 266j the fact that the felony was committed within a safe school zone, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 626, against a victim who was a pupil currently attending school, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 279, Sec. 10. Effective January 1, 2006.)

1170.89.

Where there is an applicable triad for an enhancement related to the possession of, being armed with, use of, or furnishing or supplying a firearm, set forth in Section 12021.5, 12022, 12022.2, 12022.3, 12022.4, 12022.5, or 12022.55 the fact that a person knew or had reason to believe that a firearm was stolen shall constitute a circumstance in aggravation of the enhancement justifying imposition of the upper term on that enhancement.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 279, Sec. 11. Effective January 1, 2006.)

1170.9.

(a) In the case of any person convicted of a criminal offense who could otherwise be sentenced to county jail or state prison and who alleges that the person committed the offense as a result of sexual trauma, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, or mental health problems stemming from service in the United States military, the court shall, prior to sentencing, make a determination as to whether the defendant was, or currently is, a member of the United States military and whether the defendant may be suffering from sexual trauma, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, or mental health problems as a result of the person’s service. The court may request, through existing resources, an assessment to aid in that determination.

(b) (1) If the court concludes that a defendant convicted of a criminal offense is a person described in subdivision (a), and if the defendant is otherwise eligible for probation, the court shall consider the circumstances described in subdivision (a) as a factor in favor of granting probation.

(2) If the court places the defendant on probation, the court may order the defendant into a local, state, federal, or private nonprofit treatment program for a period not to exceed that period which the defendant would have served in state prison or county jail, provided the defendant agrees to participate in the program and the court determines that an appropriate treatment program exists.

(c) If a referral is made to the county mental health authority, the county shall be obligated to provide mental health treatment services only to the extent that resources are available for that purpose, as described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) of Section 5600.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. If mental health treatment services are ordered by the court, the county mental health agency shall coordinate appropriate referral of the defendant to the county veterans service officer, as described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) of Section 5600.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. The county mental health agency shall not be responsible for providing services outside its traditional scope of services. An order shall be made referring a defendant to a county mental health agency only if that agency has agreed to accept responsibility for the treatment of the defendant.

(d) When determining the “needs of the defendant,” for purposes of Section 1202.7, the court shall consider the fact that the defendant is a person described in subdivision (a) in assessing whether the defendant should be placed on probation and ordered into a federal or community-based treatment service program with a demonstrated history of specializing in the treatment of mental health problems, including substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, military sexual trauma, and other related mental health problems.

(e) A defendant granted probation under this section and committed to a residential treatment program shall earn sentence credits for the actual time the defendant serves in residential treatment.

Sours: https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displayText.xhtml?lawCode=PEN&division=&title=7.&part=2.&chapter=4.5.&article=1.
1170 Compare Strings by Frequency of the Smallest Character

Liberty interest in recommendation for re-sentencing under PC 1170(d) gives right to present information to court

People v. McCallum (Cal. Ct. App., Sept. 30, 2020, No. B301267) 2020 WL 5810212, at *1

Resentencing under Penal Code 1170(d)(1)

Penal Code section 1170, subdivision (d)(1) authorizes the trial court to modify a defendant’s sentence upon a recommendation from the Secretary of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (Department), the Board of Parole Hearings, or the district attorney to “recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and resentence the defendant in the same manner as if they had not previously been sentenced ….”

Recommendation by the Department of Corrections and request for briefing and hearing

McCallum had Served 12 years of his third strike sentence of 30 years to life for residential burglary when the Secretary of the Department recommended  sentence be recalled and McCallum be resentenced based on his disciplinary free conduct and positive self-help programming while incarcerated. McCallum’s attorney requested the court hold a case management conference to discuss the Secretary’s recommendation, and if necessary, to set a briefing and hearing schedule.

Trial court declined to recall the sentence or provide an opportunity to submit additional information

In a minute order the court declined to exercise its discretion to recall McCallum’s sentence. While acknowledging McCallum’s substance abuse counseling and academic classes while in prison, the court noted McCallum’s family and community support was “tenuous, with no identifiable base of support.” The court did not hold a case management conference or any hearing in which to submit additional information for the court’s consideration.

On appeal McCallum argues that he had a due process right to a hearing, and that the trial court abused its discretion in failing to allow him to submit additional information on changed circumstances since he was first sentenced.

McCallum asserts he would have submitted documentation showing acceptance into programs providing the community support the court found lacking.

The Court of Appeal concluded that the statutory language of section 1170, subdivision (d)(1) shows the Legislature did not intend to require a trial court to hold a hearing before acting on a recommendation by the Secretary for recall and resentencing.

Liberty interest in recommendation or re-sentencing

A substantial right to liberty is implicated by the Secretary’s recommendation to recall a sentence (People v. Loper (2015) 60 Cal.4th 1155, 1158, 1163, 184 Cal.Rptr.3d 715, 343 P.3d 895 (Loper)). The  trial court abused its discretion in denying McCallum an opportunity to present information supporting the Secretary’s recommendation.

Moreover, the trial court based its rejection of the Secretary’s recommendation in part on a finding that McCallum had no family or community support, relying on information provided by the Secretary showing McCallum did not have visitors during his 12 years in prison. Information about family and community support upon his release is precisely the type of information that would be known to McCallum, not the Department.

The Court of Appeal reversed and remanded  for the trial court to allow McCallum and the People an opportunity to present additional information relevant to the Secretary’s recommendation, and to exercise its discretion whether to recall McCallum’s sentence. If the court recalls McCallum’s sentence, he would have a right to be present at a resentencing hearing.

1170(d)- statutory exception to the general rule that a trial court loses jurisdiction to reconsider modify the sentence when a defendant is committed

“Section 1170(d) is an exception to the common law rule that the court loses resentencing jurisdiction once execution of sentence has begun.” (Dix v. Superior Court (1991) 53 Cal.3d 442, 455, 279 Cal.Rptr. 834, 807 P.2d 1063 (Dix); accord, People v. Delson (1984) 161 Cal.App.3d 56, 62, 207 Cal.Rptr. 244 (Delson) [“[S]ection 1170, subdivision (d) represents a limited statutory exception to the general rule that a trial court loses jurisdiction to reconsider a denial of probation or vacate or modify the sentence when a defendant is committed and execution of sentence begins.”].)

Section 1170, subdivision (d), enacted in 1976 as part of the Determinate Sentencing Act (Dix, at p. 455, 279 Cal.Rptr. 834, 807 P.2d 1063), provides “the court may, within 120 days of the date of commitment on its own motion, or at any time upon the recommendation of the secretary or the Board of Parole Hearings in the case of state prison inmates, the county correctional administrator in the case of county jail inmates, or the district attorney of the county in which the defendant was sentenced, recall the sentence and commitment previously ordered and resentence the defendant in the same manner as if they had not previously been sentenced, provided the new sentence, if any, is no greater than the initial sentence.” (§ 1170, subd. (d)(1).)6 Section 1170, subdivision (d)(1), provides further as to resentencing that the court “shall apply the sentencing rules of the Judicial Council so as to eliminate disparity of sentences and to promote uniformity of sentencing. The court resentencing under this paragraph may reduce a defendant’s term of imprisonment and modify the judgment, including a judgment entered after a plea agreement, if it is in the interest of justice.”

We review the trial court’s decision whether to recall a defendant’s sentence for an abuse of discretion. (Delson, supra, 161 Cal.App.3d at p. 62, 207 Cal.Rptr. 244 [trial court did not abuse its discretion in refusing to set a hearing on Department’s recommendation under § 1170, former subd. (d), for recall of defendant’s sentence and resentencing based on postsentence diagnostic report]; see People v. Gibson (2016) 2 Cal.App.5th 315, 324-325, 206 Cal.Rptr.3d 253 [applying abuse of discretion standard to trial court’s decision whether to recall a defendant’s sentence as a youth offender under § 1170, subd. (d)(2), describing the subdivision’s language allowing recall and resentencing as “permissive”].) “ ‘Where, as here, a discretionary power is statutorily vested in the trial court, its exercise of that discretion “must not be disturbed on appeal except on a showing that the court exercised its discretion in an arbitrary, capricious or patently absurd manner that resulted in a manifest miscarriage of justice. [Citations.]’ ” [Citation.] The abuse of discretion standard ‘involves abundant deference’ to the court’s ruling.” (People v. Jefferson (2016) 1 Cal.App.5th 235, 242-243, 204 Cal.Rptr.3d 583)

No right to a Hearing Under Section 1170, Subdivision (d)(1)

Section 1170, subdivision (d)(1), is silent as to whether the trial court must hold a hearing prior to ruling on the Secretary’s recommendation for recall and resentencing. We therefore interpret subdivision (d)(1) in light of the language used in other subdivisions of section 1170. (See Digital Realty Trust, Inc. v. Somers (2018) ––– U.S. ––––, [138 S.Ct. 767, 777], 200 L.Ed.2d 15 [“ ‘[W]hen Congress “ ‘includes particular language in one section of a statute but omits it in another[,] … this Court presumes that Congress intended a difference in meaning.’ ”];

The legislature identified instances when a hearing should be held:

  • Subdivision (e)(3) of section 1170 provides that upon receiving a positive recommendation from the Secretary, “the court shall hold a hearing to consider whether the prisoner’s sentence should be recalled.”
  • Section 1170, former subdivision (f), likewise provided that within one year after a defendant’s prison term commenced, the Board of Prison Terms was required to review the sentence to determine “comparative disparity” relative to other defendants’ sentences. (Dix, supra, 53 Cal.3d at p. 458, 279 Cal.Rptr. 834, 807 P.2d 1063.) The subdivision provided that within 120 days of the trial court being notified of a determination of disparity, the “court ‘shall schedule a hearing and [after considering the Board’s information] may recall the sentence and commitment … and resentence the defendant in the same manner as if the defendant had not been sentenced previously ….’ ” (Dix, at p. 458, 279 Cal.Rptr. 834, 807 P.2d 1063, quoting § 1170, former subd. (f)(1).)

The absence of any similar language in subdivision (d) indicates the Legislature did not intend to require a hearing under that provision.” Further, “[i]t is evident that had the Legislature intended to depart from tradition and create a new procedural requirement for a hearing in enacting section 1170, subdivision (d), it would have explicitly said so.” (Delson, at p. 61, 207 Cal.Rptr. 244.)

No right to a hearing on whether to recall a sentence

The fact a defendant has a right to a resentencing hearing, however, does not mean the defendant has a right to a hearing on whether to recall his or her sentence. (See People v. Oehmigen (2014) 232 Cal.App.4th 1, 6, 181 Cal.Rptr.3d 569 [Proposition 36 accords “the right to a resentencing hearing only upon a showing that he is eligible,” but it does not provide “a right to a hearing on the issue of eligibility”]; People v. Bradford, supra, 227 Cal.App.4th at p. 1337, 174 Cal.Rptr.3d 499 [§ 1170.126 “does not expressly require the trial court to hold a hearing before considering the eligibility criteria, nor is there a reference to the taking of ‘evidence’ or other proceeding that would compel involvement by the parties”].)

Abused of discretion to reject resentencing recommendation without right to present information

After McCallum requested an opportunity to respond to the Secretary’s recommendation by requesting a case management conference and possible briefing and presentation of evidence,  the trial court’s decision to ignore McCallum’s request to provide input on the Secretary’s recommendation was an abuse of discretion.

The Supreme Court’s decision in Loper, supra, 60 Cal.4th 1155, 184 Cal.Rptr.3d 715, 343 P.3d 895 is instructive. The Loper court considered whether a defendant could appeal a trial court’s ruling denying the recommendation by the Department to recall the defendant’s sentence pursuant to the compassionate release provisions of section 1170, subdivision (e). The Supreme Court held the defendant had a right to appeal the trial court’s denial of compassionate release pursuant to section 1237, subdivision (b), because the court’s denial “was an order made after judgment that affected [the] defendant’s substantial rights.” (Loper, at pp. 1158, 1168, 184 Cal.Rptr.3d 715, 343 P.3d 895.)

In reaching this conclusion, the Supreme Court disapproved two opinions that held the defendant could not appeal denial of his motion to recall his sentence under section 1170, former subdivision (d) (and the predecessor statute), on the basis the statute did not authorize the defendant to initiate a request to recall a sentence. (Loper, at pp. 1166-1167, 184 Cal.Rptr.3d 715, 343 P.3d 895, disapproving People v. Druschel (1982) 132 Cal.App.3d 667, 183 Cal.Rptr. 348 and People v. Niren (1978) 76 Cal.App.3d 850, 851, 143 Cal.Rptr. 130.) The Loper court analogized a defendant’s right to seek recall of his or her sentence under section 1170, subdivision (d)(1), to a defendant’s right to invite a trial court to exercise its power to strike a count or allegation of an accusatory pleading, explaining, “ ‘ “[T]he court must consider evidence offered by the defendant in support of his assertion that the dismissal would be in furtherance of justice.” ’ ” (Loper, at p. 1167, 184 Cal.Rptr.3d 715, 343 P.3d 895, quoting People v. Carmony (2004) 33 Cal.4th 367, 375, 14 Cal.Rptr.3d 880, 92 P.3d 369 (Carmony).)

Here,  the trial court had jurisdiction to recall McCallum’s sentence because the Secretary made  a recommendation. Thus, as in Carmony, upon a request by McCallum, the trial court was required to consider evidence in support of the Secretary’s recommendation.

Allowing McCallum to submit additional information showing his rehabilitation and reentry plans is also consistent with the Legislature’s express findings and declarations for section 1170, amended in 2016 (effective January 1, 2017) as part of Assembly Bill No. 2590 (2015-2016 Reg. Sess.), explaining “the purpose of sentencing is public safety achieved through punishment, rehabilitation, and restorative justice.” (§ 1170, subd. (a)(1).)

In addition, Assembly Bill No. 2590 amended section 1170, subdivision (a)(2), to declare that the Department should make available for inmates “educational, rehabilitative, and restorative justice programs that are designed to promote behavior change and to prepare all eligible offenders for successful reentry into the community” and develop “policies and programs designed to educate and rehabilitate all eligible offenders.”

The trial court’s rejection of the Secretary’s recommendation without an opportunity for McCallum to present this information was an abuse of discretion.17 (People v. Miracle, supra, 6 Cal.5th at pp. 346-347, 240 Cal.Rptr.3d 381, 430 P.3d 847; People v. Gibson, supra, 2 Cal.App.5th at pp. 324-325, 2 Cal.App.5th 315, 206 Cal.Rptr.3d 253; Delson, supra, 161 Cal.App.3d at p. 62, 207 Cal.Rptr. 244.)

The Court of Appeal remanded to the trial court to allow the parties to submit information relevant to the Secretary’s recommendation and to provide briefing on whether the trial court should follow the Secretary’s recommendation. Upon receipt of this information, the court is to exercise its discretion whether to recall and resentence McCallum.

 

Sours: https://www.sanfranciscocriminallawyerblog.com/liberty-interest-in-recommendation-for-re-sentencing-under-pc-1170d-gives-right-to-present-information-to-court/

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