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For other people named Henry Morgan, see Henry Morgan (disambiguation).

Henry Morgan

Sir Henry Morgan, in a popular 18th century woodcut

Born(1635-07-22)July 22, 1635
Llanrhymny (today known as Rhymney), South Wales
Died August 25, 1688(1688-08-25) (aged 53)
Lawrencefield, Jamaica ?

Sir Henry Morgan (Harri Morgan in Welsh; 24 January 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh privateer, pirate and admiral of the English Royal Navy[1][2][3] who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main.

Early life[]

Henry Morgan was the eldest son of Robert Morgan, a farmer living in Llanrhymny (today known as Rhymney, three miles from Tredegar),[4] situated on the Rhymney River, in south-east Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. He also had a sister Catherine. An entry in the Bristol Apprentice Books showing "Servants to Foreign Plantations" 9 February 1655, included "Henry Morgan of Abergavenny, Labourer, Bound to Timothy Tounsend of Bristol, Cutler, for three years, to serve in Barbados on the like Condiciouns."

Henry's father Robert Morgan (born c.1615) was a descendant from a cadet branch of the ‘Tredegar Morgans’ and had two brothers, Thomas and Edward. Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan (1st Baronet 1604-79) served in the Commonwealth forces during English civil war from 1642-9, was Governor of Gloucester 1645, fought in Flanders, wounded, and in 1661 retired to his estate in Kynnersley, Herts. He was married on 10 September 1632, and had nine sons, of whom the eldest, Sir John Morgan followed in his father's profession. Thomas was recalled in 1665 to become Governor of Jersey, and died in St. Helier in April 1679. Colonel Edward Morgan (c. 1616- after 1665) was a Royalist during English Civil War 1642-9, Captain General of the Kings forces in South Wales, escaped to the continent, and married Anna Petronilla the daughter of Baron von Pöllnitz, Westphalia, (governor of Lippstadt, a city 20 miles east of Dortmund Germany). They had six children, two sons, and four daughters (including Anna Petronilla and Johanna). He was appointed Lt-Gov. Jamaica 1664-65.[5]

There was no record of Morgan before 1655. He later said that he left school early, and was "more used to the pike than the book." Alexandre Exquemelin, Morgan's surgeon at Panama, says that he was indentured in Barbados. After Morgan sued the publishers for libel and was awarded £200, Exquemelin was forced to retract his statement. Subsequent editions of his book were amended.[6]

Exquemelin said that Morgan came to Jamaica in 1658 as a young man, and raised himself to "fame and fortune by his valour".[7] Recent versions of his life claim that, despite having had little experience as a sailor, Morgan sailed to the Caribbean to take part in the Western Design,[citation needed] Cromwell's plan to invade Hispaniola. His first battle at Santo Domingo ended in a failed attempt to take the island. The fleet moved on to Jamaica, which the English force successfully invaded and occupied.

His uncle Edward Morgan was Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica after the Restoration of Charles II of England in 1660. Henry Morgan married his uncle's daughter Mary, a cousin. Morgan was reportedly the "Captain Morgan" who joined the fleet of Christopher Myngs in 1663. He was part of the expedition of John Morris and Jackmann when they took the Spanish settlements at Vildemos (on the Tabasco river); Trujillo, (Honduras) and Granada.[citation needed]

In late 1665 Morgan commanded a ship in the old privateer Edward Mansfield's[8] expedition sent by Sir Thomas Modyford, the governor of Jamaica. They seized the islands of Providencia and Santa Catalina Island, Colombia. When Mansfield was captured by the Spanish and executed shortly afterward, the privateers elected Morgan as their admiral.

Career under Mansvelt[]

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By 1661 Commodore Christopher Mings appointed Morgan captain of his first vessel. He plundered the Mexican coast under Lord Windsor's commission in 1665. When Lord Windsor, governor of Jamaica, refused to stop the pirates from attacking Spanish ships, the Crown relieved him, and appointed Sir Thomas Modyford in his place. Although Modyford proclaimed loyalty to the Crown, he became a critical element of Morgan's expeditions by going against the word of the king and granting Morgan letters of marque to attack Spanish ships and settlements. Modyford was originally appointed governor of Barbados for both his loyalty and service to King Charles II during the English Civil War and his familial relation to the First Duke of Albemarle, but he was later removed from this position. Modyford was then appointed Governor of Jamaica as an attempt to save his dignity. This, along with the Royalists' defeat at Worcester, decreased Modyford's loyalty to the crown. As governor, Modyford was required to call in all pirates and privateers of the West Indies because England and Spain were temporarily at peace. However, the majority of these buccaneers, Sir Henry Morgan included, either refused to return or did not receive the message that there was a recall.

When Morgan did return, Modyford had already received letters from the King of England warning him to force all of the pirates to return to port. Modyford chose to neglect these warnings and continue to issue letters of marque under the guise that it was for the King's best interest to protect Jamaica, and this was a necessary element in that goal. Because Modyford desired to get rid of the Dutch presence in the Caribbean he issued a letter of marque to Captain Edward Mansvelt to assemble a fleet of fifteen ships manned by roughly 500 to 600 men. Having just returned from a successful expedition off the Mexican Coast, where he captured several ships off the coast of Campeche, Morgan was appointed vice admiral of the fleet. Mansvelt was given orders to attack the Dutch settlement of Curaçao, but once the crew was out at sea it was decided that Curaçao was not lucrative enough for the impending danger associated with attacking it. With this in mind, a vote was taken and the crew decided that attacking a different settlement would be a safer and more lucrative alternative. Unhappy with this decision, many of the buccaneers deserted the expedition and headed back to port while others continued on with Admiral Mansvelt and Vice-Admiral Morgan to attack the Spanish island of Providence.

When Morgan and Mansvelt's fleet arrived at Providence, the Spanish were unprepared. Unable to form a defence, the Spanish surrendered all of their forts. Mansvelt and Morgan ruthlessly decided to destroy all but one of these forts. The buccaneers lived in the city and collected all of its wealth while Morgan and Mansvelt sailed around Costa Rica. Eventually, they spotted a Spanish man-of-war on the horizon and decided to return to Jamaica to gather reinforcements so that the island of Providence could be a town run and inhabited by pirates. As a sign of his sympathy toward pirates Modyford appointed his brother, Sir James Modyford, as governor of Providence. In the mind of Mansvelt, the idea of a pirate-run settlement was brilliant. However, he and Modyford both overlooked the true essence of a pirate: a pirate is not a soldier who is disciplined and prepared to fight the world's best armies when the armies were ready for them. Rather, Mansvelt's pirates were conditioned to raid a town, then leave. Thus, the pirate reign in Providence was short-lived as the island was quickly recaptured by the Spanish. After this expedition, Modyford was again reprimanded by the King of England and asked to recall all of his pirates and privateers. Once again, Modyford refused.

After learning of a rumour that the Spanish planned to attack Jamaica in retaliation for the sack of Providence, Modyford provided yet another commission to the buccaneers. This time, he gave the commission directly to Morgan to take Spanish citizens prisoner in order to protect the island of Jamaica. Modyford used the excuse of protecting the King's influence in the Americas, but this was most likely simply a guise for his own personal agenda of gaining money and keeping his post as Governor of Jamaica. Nonetheless, Morgan assembled a fleet of ten ships in a way that was quite different from most Admirals of the time. Instead of sending out a flyer and allowing willing buccaneers of the region to come to him, Morgan sailed to the places where the most daring pirates could be found. When he arrived at the ports, he dressed himself in red silk and wore fancy gold and jewels so that he appeared to be extremely successful so that more swashbucklers were drawn to him. Using a word-of-mouth approach, he was able to acquire five hundred of the best pirates in the area.[citation needed]

Puerto Principe: first independent command[]

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In 1667, he was commissioned by Modyford to capture some Spanish prisoners in Cuba in order to discover details of the threatened attack on Jamaica. Collecting 10 ships with 500 men, Morgan landed on the island and captured and sacked Puerto Principe (Camagüey).

Modyford almost immediately entrusted Morgan with another expedition against the Spaniards, and he proceeded to ravage the coast of Cuba. In a meeting held by Morgan prior to the start of their journey, he proposed that the fleet attack Havana. Although this suggestion showed his arrogance, after much debate it was decided that they did not have enough men to take Havana, so they decided instead to take Puerto Principe. While on their quest for Spanish ships, Morgan's fleet encountered heavy storms that brought them to the south shore of modern-day Cuba as opposed to the north shore where they had originally aimed. Due to the rough journey, Morgan's men had very little food and water and were forced to land on the south shore to search for provisions instead of continuing on to the north shore of Cuba. Once on land, the crew met a French crew that had also been driven ashore in search of provisions and decided to join forces. A Spanish prisoner that Morgan held hostage escaped and warned the citizens of Puerto Principe of the impending attack. The citizens quickly deserted the town with their valuables, leaving very little for the buccaneers. After searching the town and torturing its residents for information regarding the location of their riches, Morgan's fleet was only able to gather fifty-thousand pieces of eight. This was not enough to pay off the debts that the buccaneers had accumulated back in Jamaica, so they were required to find more riches before returning to Port Royal.

Attack on Porto Bello[]

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In order to cover their debts, Morgan and his men decided to aim for a city that harbored vast treasure. As the third most important Spanish city in the New World, Porto Bello, in modern-day Panama, was an obvious choice for the buccaneers. Furthermore, Porto Bello was considered the center of Spanish trade in the Americas, as its warehouses contained the goods and valuables of many wealthy merchants. With its enormous concentration of wealth, Porto Bello was extremely well protected by three Spanish forts.

However, the French crew refused to take part in this voyage because they did not get along with Morgan's English crew. It was reported that there was a dispute between a Frenchman and an Englishman during their joint sacking of Puerto del Principe, and that it had been decided they resolve their quarrel in a duel. However the Englishman stabbed the Frenchman in the back before the duel could take place. The Frenchmen desired revenge against the English, but Captain Morgan appeased them by putting the criminal in chains to be carried to Jamaica, promising justice be served upon him. On return to Jamaica, Morgan upheld his promise and had the Englishman hanged.[9][10] Notwithstanding, the French believed that they had been cheated out of their fair share of the loot by Morgan. Whereas the reputation of most pirates would have been ruined by this rumor, Morgan set sail to sack Porto Bello with his original fleet of ten ships and five-hundred men. When the fleet reached the settlement on the northern coast of South America, the buccaneers found the fortresses very intimidating. With this in mind, Morgan gave them a rousing speech, in which, he reminded them that the Spanish did not know of their presence and promised them gold and silver. When the sun went down, the ships began to sail towards Puerto do Naos, where there was a river that could lead them to Porto Bello. With information gained from a prisoner, the Buccaneers were able to surprise the first fort. The soldiers manning it were attacked by Morgan's swordsmen, some of them while still sleeping in their beds. Morgan's men came under heavy fire as they attacked the second fort, but managed to lay down suppressing fire while scaling ladders, and storming the fort, an effort costing his men many lives. However, the Spanish perceived the first two forts were easily taken, and subsequently surrendered the third fort, enabling Morgan's buccaneers to overrun the city. Not long after this, the Spanish counterattacked in an attempt to protect their wealth and center of trade, but the buccaneers were ready for the battle and Morgan organized an ambush of the fleet in a narrow passage. After defeating the much larger and more powerful Spanish fleet, Morgan and his men continued to inhabit Porto Bello for two months. During this time, they collected all of the wealth of the city that they could find, and ransomed the Spanish for the safety of its town and citizens. From the ransom alone, Morgan and his men collected roughly 100,000 pieces of eight to bring their total loot from Porto Bello to over 200,000 pieces of eight. In a foreshadowing of Morgan's future endeavors, the Governor of Panama asked him how he had beaten the Spanish army sent from his city with such small a force, along with an emerald ring and a request that he not attack Panama. Morgan replied by sending the Governor of Panama a pistol with a message as an example of the arms used in the taking of Porto Bello, and that he intended to come and reclaim it from him in Panama. Soon after, England sent Port Royal the HMS Oxford (as a gift meant to protect Port Royal); Port Royal gave it to Morgan to help his career.[11]

Because Modyford had already been warned to recall his pirates, his recent commission to Morgan once again put him under enormous pressure from the Crown. Modyford officially denounced the attacks on the town by citing that he sanctioned only attacks on ships. Modyford attempted to justify his commission by emphasizing the rumored Spanish invasion of Jamaica. However, he did not believe that merely talking of a rumored attack would be enough to save his governorship and dignity, so he decided to try to provoke the Spanish into actually attacking Jamaica. Although seemingly illogical, Modyford hoped to cover up his last commission by granting Morgan yet another one.

Cartagena Raid[]

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|date= }} In the same fashion as before, Morgan set out to assemble a fleet of buccaneers that would be willing to engage in a bold attack on the Spanish Main and was able to attract nine-hundred men to his eleven-ship fleet. Once gathered, Morgan brought his men to the Isla Vaca, also known as Cow Island, to decide on a city to attack. After deliberation it was decided that the Spanish settlement of Cartagena would be their intended target because of the riches it contained. It was one of Spain's most important cities, and held all of the gold that was in transit from Peru to Spain, so sacking Cartagena would not only provoke the Spanish into an attack while weakening one of their strongest cities, but it would also make for a very large loot.

The night that the final decision to attack Cartagena was made, there was a celebration. During this rum-filled celebration, a few intoxicated sailors accidentally lit a fuse that ignited explosives on board Morgan's flagship, the Oxford, which was originally a gift given to Modyford to help protect Jamaica from privateers like Morgan. However, the ship ended up in Morgan's possession and became his flagship. When the Oxford was destroyed, many men lost their lives, and many others chose to desert seeing the tragedy as an omen of bad luck, so the fleet was decreased to only ten ships and eight-hundred men. However, Morgan still continued onto the Spanish Main to attack Cartagena in March 1669 after supplementing his loss with that of another great ship (a French vessel [Le Cerf Volant] of 36 guns; 24 iron, 12 brass[11]), which coincidentally he’d already designed to acquire on the night of the explosion.

Having previously desired to strengthen his fleet by joining this great vessel with that of his own (the “Oxford”), he knew the French would not join the English for mistrust. So using earlier news he had happened to learn of, this being that an English merchant ship had crossed paths with these French pirates and allowed them credit for desperately needed provisions they could not afford, he shrewdly but underhandedly plotted to have the bewildered French imprisoned for committing acts of piracy against the English, and subsequently seize their ship.[9][10][11]

This he achieved, albeit in a manner he had not expected, after inviting the French Commander and several of his men aboard his great ship to dine, but with the deceptive intention to instantly take them prisoners under accusations of piracy against the English for their dealings with the aforementioned merchant ship. That same night, the unfortunate mishap with the lighting of that fuse occurred. Now Morgan desperately required the French vessel for himself, more so than before, and so deduced to add to his previous accusation that the French prisoners had also caused the explosion on the ship out of revenge for their imprisonment.[9][10][11]

With Morgan’s accusation heard, the French ship was searched. Here, a commission given to the French from the Governor of Baracoa was uncovered. This stipulated that the French were permitted to trade in Spanish ports, etc., but crucially to also cruise on any English pirates due to the hostilities they had committed against Spain during a time of peace between the two nations (Spain and France). Morgan manipulated this letter’s intent into being a direct threat: that the French be allowed to exercise piracy and war against them. The French could not clear themselves of this accusation, and hence had their great vessel seized and themselves sent to Jamaica, where they continued to try to clear their names, but all in vain, as they were detained in prison and threatened with hanging.[9][10][11]

Morgan and his men set out to continue their design for Cartagena, but the voyage proved to be disastrous to the strength of the fleet. Since the crew was forced to sail into the wind the entire way to the Spanish Main, many of the vessels were unable to continue on because either the sailors were too exhausted from working day and night or the ship was under too much stress. When Morgan finally made it to the Spanish Main, his original crew of nine-hundred had been diminished to only five hundred, a force far too weak to overtake the highly-protected city of Cartagena. A French captain (Pierre Le Picard[11]) onboard suggested to Morgan that they attempt to sack Maracaibo that he had been to three years prior under the leadership of the notoriously brutal pirate Francois L'Olonnais.[9][10][11]

Maracaibo and Gibraltar Raids[]

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|date= }} Reaching the town of Maracaibo, however, was no easy feat. The town was located on Lake Maracaibo, but to reach the lake they had to go through a narrow and shallow channel. Although the channel was only twelve feet deep, narrow, winding, and sprinkled with islands and sandbars, the French captain claimed that he could direct the ships safely through it. Unknown to him, the Spanish had built the fort San Carlos de La Barra at the channel's narrowest point since the last time the captain had been there three years before. When the fleet reached this point, they were unable to navigate the rough terrain because of the cannon and gun fire coming from the fort. Morgan was left with no choice but to order his men to land on the beach despite their lack of protection from the Spanish gun fire. Once nightfall arrived, Morgan and his men slowly entered the fort but found that there were no Spaniards there at all. Instead, the Spanish had left a slow-burning explosive as a trap for the buccaneers, which Morgan's crew discovered within 15 minutes of their arrival. Upon discovery, Morgan snatched away the lit match near the powder train saving himself and his men.

In order to protect his fleet for their voyage back through the channel, Morgan stole all of the supplies from the fort and ordered his men to bury the cannons in the sand. Because the Spanish already knew about Morgan's plan to attack Maracaibo, the men took canoes and small vessels through the channel to the town as opposed to the lengthy process of bringing the larger vessels. This modified plan was still not quick enough and the residents of Maracaibo were able to escape with their valuables before the buccaneers arrived. After searching the area and torturing any citizens they could find for three weeks, Morgan and his men loaded the large vessels with their provisions and booty, as well as prisoners to be used as messengers, and set off to attack the nearby town of Gibraltar on the southeastern shore of Lake Maracaibo.

After collecting the wealth of the town and ransoming its citizens, Morgan loaded the ships to return home. Returning to Maracaibo, Morgan found three Spanish ships, the Magdalena, the San Luis, and the La Marquesa, waiting at the inlet to the Caribbean; he destroyed the Magdalena, and captured the La Marquesa, while the San Luis's crew burned down their ship to stop the pirates from having it.[citation needed] In the time that Morgan was ransacking the two towns, the Spaniards had reinforced the fort San Carlos located at the narrowest point of the passage and barricaded the passage with three Spanish warships. Morgan and his men were given a choice to either surrender or be arrested, so they decided to fight for their freedom.

The buccaneers were outmanned by the Spanish, so they were forced to devise a clever plan to outsmart the Spanish. Morgan ordered the pirates' largest ship, the Satisfaction, to be turned into a "fire ship" that would be sailed directly into the Spanish flagship, the Magdalen. Hollowed-out logs were filled with explosives and dressed to look like a pirate crew, and the twelve men that manned the ship were instructed to throw grappling hooks into the riggings of the Magdalena so that it couldn’t sail away. Miraculously, Morgan's plan worked and Magdalena was destroyed. The second largest Spanish ship, the San Luis, was run ashore by the ship Morgan was now in control of. The final ship, La Marquesa, was taken by the pirates after the ropes tangled. After the battle, Morgan was still unable to cross the channel because of the fort, but the Spanish had no ships with which to attack Morgan. Finally, by an ingenious stratagem, he faked a landward attack on the fort which convinced the governor to shift his cannon, allowing Morgan to slowly creep by the fort using only the movement of the tide. In doing so, he eluded the enemy's guns altogether and escaped in safety. On his return to Jamaica he was again reproved, but not punished by Modyford.

The Spaniards for their part started to react and threaten Jamaica. A new commission was given to Morgan as commander-in-chief of all the ships of war in Jamaica, to levy war on the Spaniards and destroy their ships and stores - the booty gained in the expedition being the only pay. Thus Morgan and his crew were on this occasion privateers, not pirates. After ravaging the coasts of Cuba and the mainland, Morgan determined on an expedition to Panama.

Burning of Panama and the loss of English support[]

He recaptured the island of Santa Catalina on 15 December 1670 and, on 27 December, he gained possession of the fortress of San Lorenzo in the Caribbean coast of Panama, killing 300 men of the garrison and leaving 23 alive. Then with 1,400 men he ascended the Chagres River towards the Pacific coast and Panama City.

On 28 January 1671, Morgan discovered that Panama had roughly 1,200 infantry.[12] He split his forces in two, using one to march through the forest and flank the enemy. The Spaniards were untrained and rushed Morgan's line where he cut them down with gunfire, only to have his flankers emerge and finish off the rest of the Spanish soldiers. Although Panama was at the time the richest city in New Spain, Morgan and his men obtained far less plunder than they had expected. Much of the city's wealth had been removed onto the Spanish treasure galleon, La Santisima Trinidad (a ship that nearly a decade later would be taken by English pirates, including one William Dampier,[13] participating in the adventures of Captain Sharp et al. into the South Seas[9][10]) that then stood out into the Gulf of Panama, beyond the looters' reach.[14] Or rather, had Morgan's men not decided that celebrating the capture of Panama was of higher importance than chancing their efforts with a ship which, at that point may or may not have been of any value, then they would have remained in a fit enough state to have made an attempt on it before the ship had had time to exit the bay. In reasoning, their decision at that time did not appear a bad one. As well as considering the further risk they would have exposed themselves to after battling with the Governor of Panama and his army, they were still in desperate need of victuals to satiate their extreme hunger after weeks of arduous marching from Fort San Lorenzo; the Spanish having made every effort to starve them on their approach by ensuring all villages were empty of provisions, and had setup numerous ambuscades by which to attack and taunt them.[9][10] However, upon learning the extent of the wealth transferred onto that galleon, their decision turned out to be a major error in their judgement. For if they had remained sober enough and chosen to venture that little further, with their superior nautical skills at their disposal, they would have surely landed the amount of spoils they were expecting. Most of the inhabitants' remaining goods were destroyed in a fire of unclear cause. Morgan's men tortured those residents of Panama they could catch, but very little gold was forthcoming from the victims. After Morgan's attack, the Panama city had to be rebuilt in a new site a few kilometres to the west (the current site). The former site is called Panamá Viejo and still contains the remaining parts of the old Panama City.

Because the sack of Panama violated the 1670 peace treaty between England and Spain, Morgan was arrested and conducted to the Kingdom of England in 1672. He proved he had no knowledge of the treaty. When Spanish and English relations deteriorated, Morgan was knighted in 1674 before returning to Jamaica the following year to take up the post of Lieutenant Governor.[citation needed][15]

By 1681, then-acting governor Morgan had fallen out of favour with King Charles II, who was intent on weakening the semi-autonomous Jamaican Council, and was replaced by long-time political rival Thomas Lynch. He gained considerable weight and a reputation for rowdy drunkenness.

Retirement[]

In 1683, Morgan was suspended from the Jamaican Council by the machinations of Governor Lynch. Also during this time, an account of Morgan's disreputable exploits was published by Alexandre Exquemelin, who once had been his confidante, probably as a barber-surgeon, in a Dutch volume entitled De Americaensche Zee-Roovers (About the Buccaneers of America).[9][10] Morgan took steps to discredit the book and successfully brought a libel suit against the book's publishers William Crooke and Thomas Malthus, securing a retraction and damages of two hundred English pounds.[16] The book nonetheless contributed much to Morgan's reputed fame as a bloodthirsty pirate during the time he was in Newport.

When Thomas Lynch died in 1684, his friend Christopher Monck was appointed to the governorship and arranged the dismissal of Morgan's suspension from the Jamaican Council in 1688. Morgan's health had steadily declined since 1681. He was diagnosed with "dropsie", but may have contracted tuberculosis in London, and died on 25 August 1688. He is buried in Palisadoes cemetery, which sank beneath the sea after the 1692 earthquake.[17]

Morgan had lived in an opportune time for privateers. He was able to successfully use the conflicts between England and her enemies both to support England and to enrich himself and his crews. With his death, the pirates who would follow would also use this same ploy, but with less successful results.

Henry Morgan’s Will 1688
Henry had married his cousin, Mary Elizabeth Morgan in 1666, there was no issue and she died in 1696. In his will signed 17 June 1688, he left his Jamaican property to his godsons Charles Byndloss (b.1668) and Henry Archbold on condition they adopted the surname of Morgan. These were the children of his two cousins Anna Petronilla Byndloss (née Morgan), and Johanna Archbold (née Morgan). Their father Colonel Edward Morgan (Lt-Gov. Jamaica 1664-65) was Robert Morgan's younger brother (see early life). To his sister Catherine Loyd (née Morgan) he awarded £60 per annum from his estate ‘paid into the hands of my ever honest cozen (sic) Thomas Morgan of Tredegar’.[5]

Discovery of ship[]

On 4 August 2011 archaeologists from Texas State University reported having found what may be one of Morgan's ships off the coast of Panama.[18] The dive was conducted off the Lajas Reef; some sources are stating it was at the mouth of Panama's Chagres River, where a 52-by-22-foot (16 by 7 m) section from the starboard side of a wooden ship's hull was found.[19] The find may be Morgan's flagship, Satisfaction.[20]

Unopened cargo boxes and chests encrusted in coral were found, in addition to the section of hull.[21]

The dives are being led by Texas State University underwater archaeologist Frederick Hanselmann and assisted by the U.S. National Park Service Submerged Resources Center and volunteer divers from Aquarius Reef Base, a joint operation of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and University of North Carolina Wilmington - and in cooperation with Panamanian authorities and colleagues. The finds will stay in Panama.[22]

Popular culture[]

Film & Television[]

  • The 1935 film Captain Blood, starring Errol Flynn, adapted from Rafael Sabatini's novel (see below), was loosely based on Morgan's life. This film provided Flynn with a star-making role.
  • The 1941 movie Horror Island has characters searching for the buried treasure of Henry Morgan.
  • The 1942 film, The Black Swan, based on the novel of the same name by Rafael Sabatini, had an account of Henry Morgan after his becoming the governor of Jamaica. Morgan was portrayed by Laird Cregar in the film.
  • The 1952 film Blackbeard the Pirate features Henry Morgan as an antagonist, portrayed by Torin Thatcher.
  • The 1961 film Morgan, the Pirate, starring Steve Reeves, gave an account of how Morgan became a pirate and was courted by the English to work for them.
  • The 1961 film, Pirates of Tortuga, Robert Stephens portrayed Morgan's having set up an independent pirate kingdom on Tortuga instead of answering Charles II's summons to England.
  • In a 1965 episode of the TV sitcom The Munsters, "The Treasure of Mockingbird Heights", Herman and Grandpa Munster discover a secret chamber and a clue to Henry Morgan's pirate treasure hidden on the Munsters' property.
  • The 1976 film, The Black Corsair, a character named Captain Morgan was portrayed by Angelo Infanti.
  • In 2003, Henry Morgan was the namesake of the Morgan Tribe in Survivor: Pearl Islands.
  • In 2006, The History Channel premiered the documentary True Caribbean Pirates, which told the known facts of Henry Morgan's life and death through re-enactments. Morgan was portrayed by Lance J. Holt.
  • In the 2007 film, Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End, Henry Morgan is mentioned as being one of the pirates who supposedly created the Brethren Court's Pirate's Code, along with Bartholomew Roberts.
  • 2013 Documentary "The Unsinkable Henry Morgan." [1]

Literature[]

  • Rafael Sabatini's novel Captain Blood is based in large part on Morgan's career.
  • Emilio Salgari's Caribbean saga is centered on the fictitious character of Emilio di Roccabruna, aka The Black Corsair, whose lieutenant is the historical Henry Morgan. He becomes the main character in Salgari's 1904 novel Yolanda, the Black Corsair's daughter.
  • John Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold (1929), is about Henry Morgan's life.
  • Book 1 of Nicholas Monsarrat's The Master Mariner has anti-hero Matthew Lawe sailing with Morgan as Mate.
  • F. Van Wyck Mason's 1949 novel Cutlass Empire romanticized Morgan's life, loves and battles.
  • Josephine Tey's 1952 novel The Privateer dramatized Morgan's life.
  • Kage Baker's short novel The Maid on the Shore, published in the short story collection Dark Mondays, features Henry Morgan during his expedition to Panama.
  • Berton Braley's 1934 poem This is the ballad of Henry Morgan
  • Ian Fleming's 1954 novel Live and Let Die centres round events which follow from the discovery of treasure hidden by Morgan.
  • Dudley Pope's Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan combines firsthand sailor's knowledge of the Caribbean and use of primary documents; noted in the bibliography of James Stuart Olson and Robert Shadle Historical Dictionary of the British Empire 1996
  • Morgan is likely the inspiration for the privateer Charles Hunter in Michael Crichton's novel Pirate Latitudes.[23]
  • James A. Michener's 1989 novel, Caribbean, features a chapter on Henry Morgan's exploits.
  • In Isaac Asimov's Robots In Time, Book 2, Marauder, time travelers met Captain Henry Morgan when they went back in time in search of a fugitive robot.
  • In the 1954 novel Deadmen's Cave by Leonard Wibberley, Morgan plays a major role in a hearty pirate tale of adventure, revenge, treasure, and redemption.
  • In Nicholas Monsarrat's 1978 novel The Master Mariner, Book 1: Running Proud, Morgan appears in part 3 as a notorious, charismatic Buccaneer admiral, with unstable personality, charming one day and diabolically evil the next day.
  • In James A. Owen's novel series, The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica, Henry Morgan is in reality, a Yankee engineer named Hank Morgan (A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court), who served as one of the time travelling Messengers of the Caretakers of the Geographica (one of his assignments landed him in the Arthurian Age). After accidentally getting lost in time and space, he ends up in the Caribbean Islands and alters his name to Henry Morgan, where his attempts to find solutions to get back to his own time end up with him becoming the famous pirate.
  • Stephan Talty's 2007 novel 'Empire of Blue Water' chronicles Morgan's early days right up to his death, and offers a wildly exciting and historically accurate insight into the rise and fall of privateering in the Americas
  • Lloyd Shepherd's 2012 novel The English Monster features Henry Morgan.
  • He is mentioned in the 2013 novel, Time Riders: The Pirate Kings by Alex Scarrow when two of the main characters, Liam and Rashim, go back in time to 1666 and become privateers in the Caribbean Sea.

Music[]

  • There is a traditional Welsh air known as "Captain Morgan's March" — translated into English as "Forth to the Battle". Also known as "Rhwym Wrth Dy Wregys; Rhyvelgyrch Cadpen Morgan". However, it likely refers to Morgan, a chieftain of Morgannwg in the 14th century.
  • Celtic rock band Tempest immortalized Morgan in "Captain Morgan", featured on their albums Bootleg, The 10th Anniversary Compilation and 15th Anniversary Collection.
  • The album Good 'N' Cheap by Eggs over Easy featured a song titled "Henry Morgan" written and performed by Brien Bohn Hopkins and inspired by the novel Cup of Gold by John Steinbeck.
  • The Mighty Diamonds recorded a song named "Morgan the Pirate".
  • Scottish heavy metal band Alestorm named their first album Captain Morgan's Revenge, and prior to this, had an instrumental called "The Curse of Captain Morgan" on their EP "Terror on the High Seas", in part of the song "Captain Morgan's Revenge", before signing with Napalm Records and renaming themselves from Battleheart.
  • Reggae Artist Prince Far I featured Morgan in his song "Head of the Buccaneer" from the 1981 album Voice of Thunder.
  • OPM reference Captain Morgan in the song El Capitan.
  • Pirate themed Celtic Punk/Folk Rock band Ye Banished Privateers pay homage to Henry Morgan in the song Welcome to Tortuga on their album Songs and Curses.
  • In Peter Tosh's song 'You Can't Blame The Youth' the figure of Captain Morgan is highlighted as a figure from Jamaica's history who, although being revered, was in actuality a monster. Tosh points out that the youth should not be blamed for bad behavior when the 'Great men' they are taught about were, in reality, violent criminals. "You teach the youth about the Pirate Morgan, and you say he was a very great man. So you cant blame the youth, you can't fool the youth. All these great men were doing - robbing, kidnapping, raping and killing, So called 'great men' were doing robbing, raping, kidnapping. So you can't blame the youth."[24]

Other products[]

  • The Captain Morgan brand of rum is named after the privateer.
  • The Hotel Henry Morgan, located in Roatan, Honduras, the Port Morgan resort located in Haiti and Captain Morgan's Retreat and Vacation Club on Ambergris Caye, Belize are all named after the privateer.
  • The video game Sid Meier's Pirates! features Henry Morgan as the greatest pirate in the Caribbean.
  • Age of Pirates 2: City of Abandoned Ships (2009 video game) features Henry Morgan as one of the greatest pirate in the Caribbean, the Chief-in-Commander of Brotherhood of Coast, and player can complete series of tasks given by Henry Morgan.
  • In One Piece there is a corrupt Marine Captain named "Axe-Hand" Morgan that Luffy encounters early on in the series. Despite being a naval officer, Morgan acts more like a cruel feudal lord, killing anyone that defies him. Series creator Eiichiro Oda confirmed in a Q&A section in the serialized manga that Morgan is indeed named after Henry Morgan
  • In the video game Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag, set a few decades after Morgan's death, his outfit is an unlockable feature.

References[]

  1. ↑"True Caribbean Pirates" (2006); History International Documentary; retrieved 3 July 2011
  2. ↑Stockton, Frank Richard (1898 (reprinted 2006)). Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts. Echo Library. p. 59. ISBN 1-4068-3064-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=XrWqeCQkUVYC&dq=buccaneers+and+pirates+of+our+coasts&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  3. ↑Cordingly, David (1996). Under the Black Flag. Random House. pp. 42–55. ISBN 0-15-600549-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=ibNFPgAACAAJ&dq=under+the+black+flag&hl=en&ei=uDsVTq32BI72mAWawoEb&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ. 
  4. ↑Biography of Sir Henry Morgan, 1635-84 Dudley Pope, Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, (1977) ISBN 0436377357 page 62
  5. 5.05.1Harry Morgan's Way: (1977) Biography of Sir Henry Morgan, 1635-84 Dudley Pope, Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, ISBN 0-436-37735-7
  6. ↑Cordingley, David (1995). Life Among the Pirates. London: Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11314-9
  7. ODNB: "Sir Henry Morgan"; mentions a third undocumented conjecture that he came as one of Oliver Cromwell's soldiers. Exquemelin from p.62, online reproduction of 1984 English edition.
  8. ↑Mansfield was disguised as "Mansvelt" in Exquemelin's account, according to Clarence Henry Haring, The Buccaneers in the West Indies in the XVII Century, (London: Methuen, 1910), note 242, noting Beeston's journal.
  9. 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7The Buccaneers of America (dutch)
  10. 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.7The Buccaneers of America (english)
  11. 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.6The Monarchs of The Main by Walter Thornbury
  12. ↑Earle, Peter (2007). The sack of Panamá Captain Morgan and the battle for the Caribbean (1st U.S. ed. ed.). New York: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-312-36142-6. 
  13. ↑Dampier's New Voyage Round The World - 1697
  14. ↑Michener, James A., Caribbean (1989), p. 211 ff
  15. ↑http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/morgan_henry.htm
  16. The Libel Suit Against Malthus. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=bP8dAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA257&lpg=PA257&dq=%22henry+morgan%22+malthus+libel&source=bl&ots=xGNc5kPDI-&sig=xownF9cY5IzWzdAkCYicmOqQqtc&hl=en&ei=CP9yTMqWO8SDnQe8jrzKDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22henry%20morgan%22%20malthus%20libel&f=false. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  17. ↑"Henry Morgan: the Pirate King". Jamaica-gleaner.com. 2002-12-09. http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0038.htm. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  18. ↑TSU researcher discovers pirate shipwreck
  19. ↑Boyle, Alan. "Capt. Morgan's lost fleet found?". Cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com. http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2011/08/04/7245795-capt-morgans-lost-fleet-found. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  20. ↑"Wreck of Capt. Morgan's Pirate Ship Found, Archaeologists Say". Scitech.foxnews.mobi. http://scitech.foxnews.mobi/quickPage.html?page=24006&content=54616879&pageNum=-1. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  21. ↑"Henry Morgan's 1671 ship hull and chests rediscovered". 3 News. 5 August 2011. http://www.3news.co.nz/Henry-Morgans-1970-ship-hull-chests-rediscovered/tabid/1160/articleID/221212/Default.aspx. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  22. ↑"The Search for Captain Henry Morgan's Lost Fleet". Social.taylorstrategy.com. http://social.taylorstrategy.com/smpr/smr/CaptainMorgan/PanamaDive/CaptainMorganPanama.html. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  23. ↑"Lisa reads: Pirate Latitudes by Michael Crichton". When Falls the Coliseum. 2009-12-08. http://whenfallsthecoliseum.com/2009/12/08/lisa-reads-pirate-latitudes-by-michael-crichton/. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  24. ↑"Peter Tosh - Can'T Blame The Youth Lyrics". Songlyrics.com. http://www.songlyrics.com/peter-tosh/can-t-blame-the-youth-lyrics/. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) "Morgan, Sir Henry" Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Cambridge University Press 

Further reading[]

  • Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan, 1635–84, Dudley Pope, Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, (1977) ISBN 0-436-37735-7

External links[]

  • Pirate Treasure on Roatan Island
  • Dr. Rebecca Tortello, "Henry Morgan, the pirate king", Jamaica Gleaner
  • "Henry Morgan", Global Travel
  • "Henry Morgan", Wales, UK
  • "Henry Morgan", Dictionary of Welsh Biography, National Library of Wales
  • "Henry Morgan", 100 Welsh Heroes
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Lynch
Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
acting

1674–1675
Succeeded by
John Vaugh
Preceded by
John Vaugh
Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
acting

1678
Succeeded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Preceded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
acting

1680–1682
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Lynch
Sours: https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgan

Henry Morgan (humorist)

American comedian

Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan comedian.JPG

Morgan (late 1940s-early 1950s)

Birth nameHenry Lerner Van Ost Jr.
Born(1915-03-31)March 31, 1915
New York City, U.S.
DiedMay 19, 1994(1994-05-19) (aged 79)
New York City, U.S.
Years active1932–1982
GenresHumorist, comedian, game show panelist
Spouse

Isobel Gibbs Morgan

(m. 1946; div. 1948)​

Karen Sorensen

(m. 1978⁠–⁠1994)​

Henry Morgan (born Henry Lerner Van Ost Jr.; March 31, 1915 – May 19, 1994) was an American humorist. He first became familiar to radio audiences in the 1930s and 1940s as a barbed but often self-deprecating satirist; in the 1950s and later, he was a regular and cantankerous panelist on the game show I've Got a Secret as well as other game and talk shows. Morgan was a second cousin of Broadway lyricist and librettist Alan Jay Lerner.

Radio[edit]

Morgan began his radio career as a page at New York City station WMCA in 1932, after which he held a number of radio jobs, including announcing. He strenuously objected to the professional name "Morgan" but was told that his birth name of Van Ost was exotic and difficult to pronounce, despite the fame of successful announcers Harry von Zell and Westbrook Van Voorhis. This began a long history of Morgan's arguments with executives.[1]

In 1940, Morgan was offered a daily 15-minute comedy series on Mutual Broadcasting System's flagship station WOR.[2]

In his memoir, Here's Morgan (1994), Morgan wrote that he devised his introduction as a dig at popular singer Kate Smith, who "...started her show with a condescending, 'Hello, everybody.' I, on the other hand, was happy if anybody listened in." He mixed in barbed ad-libs, satirizing daily life's foibles, with novelty records, including those of Spike Jones. Morgan stated that Jones sent him his newest records in advance of market dates because he played them so often.[1]

Morgan appeared in the December 1944 CBS Radio original broadcast of Norman Corwin's play The Plot to Overthrow Christmas, taking several minor roles including that of the narrator, Ivan the Terrible and Simon Legree. He repeated his performance in the December 1944 production of the play.[3]

Morgan targeted his sponsors freely. One early sponsor, Adler Shoe Stores, came close to canceling its account after Morgan made references to "Old Man Adler" on the air. The chain changed its mind after business spiked upward, with many new patrons asking to meet Old Man Adler. Morgan had to read an Adler commercial heralding the new fall line of colors. He thought the colors were dreadful, and said he wouldn't wear them to a dogfight, but perhaps the listeners would like them. Old Man Adler demanded a retraction on the air and Morgan obliged: "I would wear them to a dogfight." He later recalled, "It made him happy."[1]

The Henry Morgan Show received a Peabody Award Special Citation of honor for 1946.[4]

Morgan's friend Ed Herlihy, a veteran radio announcer, remembered him to radio historian Gerald Nachman (in Raised on Radio): "He was ahead of his time, but he was also hurt by his own disposition. He was very difficult. He was so brilliant that he'd get exasperated and he'd sulk. He was a great mind who never achieved the success he should have." Nachman wrote of Morgan that he was radio's "first true rebel because — like many comics who go for the jugular, from Lenny Bruce to Roseanne Barr — he didn't know when to quit."[5]

Another supporter was Arnold Stang, who worked as one of Morgan's second bananas on the ABC shows and was known later as the voice of Hanna-Barbera's Top Cat. "He was a masochist, a neurotic man," Stang told Nachman about his former boss. "When things were going well for him, he would do something to destroy himself. He just couldn't deal with success. He'd had an unhappy childhood that warped him a little and gave him a sour outlook on life. He had no close friends." Stang also claimed that Morgan's first wife "kept him deeply in debt and refused to give him a divorce", though the divorce did occur and decades later, Morgan remarried.[5]

Brief blacklisting[edit]

Morgan was briefly blacklisted after his name appeared in the infamous anti-communist pamphlet Red Channels. Morgan's connections with communism were dubious at best. Nachman noted that Morgan's listing sprang from his former wife's leftist affiliations, as Morgan himself confirmed in his memoir:[1]

All her information came from friends whose conversation leaned sharply away from their relatively high incomes, which, apparently, they found to be embarrassing in a world that harbored poor people. Their chosen method of being helpful was to attend meetings at one another's homes and discuss the problems of the hungry hordes after dinner. I am not trying to be amusing; it's what they really did. A Party member was usually invited to lead the discussions. I was apolitical. To some, that meant that I was either stupid or "inner-directed"—which meant according to them that I didn't care about my fellow man. What I really didn't care about was the four or five of her friends who later became known as the Hollywood Ten.[citation needed]

Morgan married Isobel Gibb on August 17, 1946 in Las Vegas. By 1948, they were separated.[6] During an appearance on Late Night with David Letterman in 1982, Morgan told Letterman that Gibb was still trying to sue him for more money.[7]

Morgan revealed in his memoir that one of his cousins had been a Communist Party member until the Hitler-Stalin Pact caused him to break with the party, and that this cousin had told investigators that Morgan had not been a party member. The cousin had decided to cooperate closely with investigators "when he learned that his agent, a Party member, had refused to accept assignments for him; his doctor, another Red, knowing of (his) bad heart, had recommended that he play tennis. The Party tried to rape him. It was enough to ruin his faith, it was. He decided to kill them, that was all." Morgan was cleared and he resumed his broadcasting career.[1]

So This Is New York and early TV shows[edit]

Morgan made one film as a lead actor, producer Stanley Kramer's sophisticated comedy So This Is New York (1948), which also featured Arnold Stang and was loosely based upon Ring Lardner's 1920 novel The Big Town. Though Morgan and the film received favorable critical reviews, it was not as well received by the public as his radio and later television work.

In 1948, the fledgling ABC Television Network put Morgan on the air with On the Corner, which lasted for five weeks. In 1949, NBC television gave him his own show, The Henry Morgan Show. In 1951, Morgan had a short-lived TV show on NBC, Henry Morgan's Great Talent Hunt, which replaced the NBC variety series Versatile Varieties, running from January 26 to June 1, 1951. The show started out as a take-off on The Original Amateur Hour, and featured Kaye Ballard (in her TV debut), Art Carney, Pert Kelton and Arnold Stang as Gerard, who supposedly recruited the "talent" for Morgan.

On April 20, NBC changed the show's title and format to The Henry Morgan Show, a comedy-variety show with singers Dorothy Claire and Dorothy Jarnac providing musical numbers between the comedy sketches.

Morgan also appeared as Brooklyn assistant district attorney Burton Turkus in the gangster film Murder, Inc. (1960) alongside Stuart Whitman, May Britt and Peter Falk. A year earlier, he hosted the short-lived syndicated television program Henry Morgan and Company, which AllMovie has identified as a precursor to David Letterman's style of irreverent television.

I've Got a Secret[edit]

Morgan's longest-lasting television image began in June 1952 when he was invited to join CBS's I've Got a Secret, produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman. Morgan's tenure on the show was marked by his periodic sarcastic complaints about the working conditions. Morgan's mordant wit played well against the upbeat personalities of the other panelists, and producer Allan Sherman would deliberately stage elaborate "secrets" involving Morgan personally. On various occasions, Morgan was:

On one occasion in 1958, after Sherman had left Morgan short on material and with several minutes left to fill, Morgan went on an extended rant against Sherman; Sherman was fired almost immediately thereafter.[8]

Morgan stayed with the show for its original 14-season run and rejoined it when it was revived twice: in syndication in 1972, and on CBS once more for a brief 1976 summer run.

Other work[edit]

Morgan continued radio appearances, most often on the NBC weekend show NBC Monitor (1955–70), which also afforded final airings to longtime radio favorites Fibber McGee and Molly, until co-star Marian Jordan's death, as well as appearing as a guest panelist on other game shows produced by the Goodson-Todman team, including What's My Line?, To Tell the Truth and The Match Game. Morgan also took a turn hosting a radio quiz show, Sez Who, in 1959; the quiz involved guessing the famous voices making memorable comments that had been recorded over the years.

Morgan had three bylines in Mad magazine in 1957-58, during the period when the magazine was adapting work from humorists such as Bob and Ray, Ernie Kovacs and Sid Caesar. During the early 1950's, he also wrote a weekly humor column for the New York Post. Morgan was occasionally seen on the legendary weekly news satire That Was The Week That Was in 1964–65. Also in the 1960s, he made numerous appearances in the early years of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and became a regular cast member of the short-lived but respected James Thurber-based comedy series My World and Welcome to It in 1969.[5] He was also a contestant on a 1963 edition of To Tell the Truth, in which he successfully fooled the panelists[9] into thinking he was former Polish spy-turned-author Pawel Monat.[10]

During the 1970s, Morgan wrote humorous commentaries for national magazines. His radio career gained an early-1980s revival in his native New York City, thanks to his two-and-a-half-minute The Henry Morgan Show commentaries, broadcast twice daily on WNEW-AM (now WBBR) starting in January 1981. The following year, he added the Saturday-evening show Morgan and the Media on WOR.

On October 13, 1972, Morgan appeared as a last-minute fill-in on The Merv Griffin Show, and, frustrated with fellow guest Charo's interruptions and poor grasp of English, told Griffin, "...you dragged me out of bed because you said you were stuck for a guest, and I have to sit and listen to this nonsensical babble..." and walked off the set.

Morgan was a guest on the February 8, 1982 fifth episode of the nascent Late Night with David Letterman show along with film producer and director Francis Ford Coppola, during which Morgan gave a rambling account of his troubles with his ex-wife and left the show during a commercial break.[11]

Later life and death[edit]

Morgan's 1994 memoir, Here's Morgan! The Original Bad Boy of Broadcasting, found him satirizing many of his former co-stars but not examining his professional life with much depth, as if the reader was listening to a vintage radio satire of Morgan's life. He also edited, with writer and editor Babette Rosmond, Shut Up, He Explained, an anthology of Ring Lardner's shorter works (Scribner, 1962).

His final national television appearance was on the cable television series Talk Live in early 1994. A few weeks after that broadcast, Morgan died of lung cancer at age 79.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Henry Morgan Henry Morgan's Jokebook (Avon, 1955)
  • Henry Morgan; Babette Rosmond (Editors) Shut Up He Explained (Scribner, 1962)
  • Gerald Gardner (with "Keynote Address" by Henry Morgan) Looks Like A Landslide (Fawcett, 1964)
  • Henry Morgan; James Spanfeller, Illus. O-Sono and the Magician's Nephew, and the Elephant (Vanguard Press, 1964)
  • Frank Buxton; Bill Owen (Henry Morgan-Introduction) The Big Broadcast: 1920-1950 (Viking Press, 1972)
  • Henry Morgan; George BoothDogs (Houghton Mifflin, 1976)
  • Henry Morgan Here's Morgan! The Original Bad Boy of Broadcasting (Barricade Books,1994)

Audio[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdeHenry Morgan, Henry. Here's Morgan! The Original Bad Boy of Broadcasting. New York: Barricade Books, 1994.
  2. ^"RadioEchoes.com". www.radioechoes.com. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  3. ^"The Plot to Overthrow Christmas: Norman Corwin", tangentonline.com; accessed August 5, 2017.
  4. ^"Peabody Awards for '46 Announced"(PDF). Broadcasting. April 21, 1947. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  5. ^ abcNachman, Gerald. Raised on Radio. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.
  6. ^"Radio's Henry Morgan Faces New Marital Suit", Canton Repository, June 4, 1950.
  7. ^"YouTube". www.youtube.com.
  8. ^Mueller, Jim (March 29, 2000). "Sherman's March". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  9. ^"Best Ever to Tell the Truth". YouTube. June 11, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  10. ^Rosenthal, A.M. (November 23, 1959). "Polish spy chief defects to west". New York Times. New York, N.Y. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  11. ^"Henry Morgan on 'Late Night with David Letterman'" on YouTube, New York City, February 8, 1982; retrieved June 25, 2014.

Sources[edit]

  • John Crosby, Out of the Blue: A Book About Radio and Television (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1952)

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgan_(humorist)
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Harry Morgan

American actor

For other people with the same name, see Harry Morgan (disambiguation).

Harry Morgan

Harry Morgan in 1975.JPG

Harry Morgan in 1975

Born

Harry Bratsberg


(1915-04-10)April 10, 1915

Detroit, Michigan, U.S.

DiedDecember 7, 2011(2011-12-07) (aged 96)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Alma materUniversity of Chicago
OccupationActor, director, writer
Years active1935–1999
TelevisionM*A*S*H
Dragnet
Spouse(s)

Eileen Detchon

(m. 1940; died 1985)​

Barbara Bushman

(m. 1986)​
Children4

Harry Morgan (born Harry Bratsberg; April 10, 1915 – December 7, 2011) was an American actor and director whose television and film career spanned six decades. Morgan's major roles included Pete Porter in both December Bride (1954–1959) and Pete and Gladys (1960–1962); Officer Bill Gannon on Dragnet (1967–1970); Amos Coogan on Hec Ramsey (1972–1974); and his starring role as Colonel Sherman T. Potter in M*A*S*H (1975–1983) and AfterMASH (1983–1985). Morgan also appeared in more than 100 films.

Early life and career[edit]

Morgan was born Harry Bratsberg in Detroit, the son of Hannah and Henry Bratsberg.[1][2][3] His parents were of Swedish and Norwegian ancestry.[4] In his interview with the Archive of American Television, Morgan spelled his Norwegian family surname as "Brasburg".[2] Many sources, however, including some family records, list the spelling as "Bratsburg". According to one source, when Morgan's father Henry registered at junior high school, "the registrar spelled it Bratsburg instead of Bratsberg. Bashful Henry did not demur."[5]

Morgan was raised in Muskegon, Michigan, and graduated from Muskegon High School in 1933, where he achieved distinction as a statewide debating champion.[6] He originally aspired to a J.D. degree, but began acting while a junior at the University of Chicago in 1935.

He began acting on stage under his birth name, in 1937, joining the Group Theatre in New York City formed by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford, and Lee Strasberg in 1931.[7][8] He appeared in the original production of the Clifford Odets play Golden Boy, followed by a host of successful Broadway roles alongside such other Group members as Lee J. Cobb, Elia Kazan, John Garfield, Sanford Meisner, and Karl Malden. Morgan also did summer stock at the Pine Brook Country Club located in the countryside of Nichols, Connecticut.

Film work[edit]

Morgan made his screen debut (originally using the name "Henry Morgan") in the 1942 movie To the Shores of Tripoli. His screen name later became "Henry 'Harry' Morgan" and eventually Harry Morgan, to avoid confusion with the popular humorist of the same name.

In the same year, Morgan appeared in the movie Orchestra Wives as a young man pushing his way to the front of a ballroom crowd with his date to hear Glenn Miller's band play. A few years later, still credited as Henry Morgan, he was cast in the role of pianist Chummy MacGregor in the 1954 biopicThe Glenn Miller Story.

Morgan continued to play a number of significant roles on the big screen in such films as The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), Wing and a Prayer (1944), A Bell for Adano (1945), Dragonwyck (1946), The Gangster (1947), The Big Clock (1948), The Well (1951), High Noon (1952), Torch Song (1953), and several films in the 1950s for director Anthony Mann, including Bend of the River (1952), Thunder Bay (1953), The Glenn Miller Story (1954), The Far Country (1955), and Strategic Air Command (1955). In his later film career, he appeared in Inherit the Wind (1960), How the West Was Won (1962) (as Ulysses S. Grant), John Goldfarb, Please Come Home (1965), Frankie and Johnny (1966), The Flim-Flam Man (1967), Support Your Local Sheriff! (1969), Support Your Local Gunfighter! (1971), Snowball Express (1972), The Shootist (1976), The Wild Wild West Revisited (1979), and as Captain Gannon in the film version of Dragnet (1987) with Dan Aykroyd and Tom Hanks.

Radio and television[edit]

Morgan hosted the NBC radio series Mystery in the Air starring Peter Lorre in 1947. On CBS, he played Pete Porter in Pete and Gladys (1960–1962), with Cara Williams as wife Gladys. Pete and Gladys was a spin-off of December Bride (1954–1959), starring Spring Byington, a show in which Morgan had a popular recurring role. In 1950, Morgan appeared as an obtrusive, alcohol-addled hotel clerk in the Dragnet radio episode "The Big Boys".

1960s: Dragnet and other roles[edit]

After Pete and Gladys ended production, Morgan guest-starred in the role of Al Everett in the 1962 episode "Like My Own Brother" on Gene Kelly's ABC drama series, Going My Way, loosely based on the 1944 Bing Crosbyfilm of the same name. That same year, he played the mobster Bugs Moran in an episode of ABC's The Untouchables, with Robert Stack. In 1963, he was cast as Sheriff Ernie Backwater on Richard Boone's Have Gun – Will TravelWestern series on CBS, then worked as a regular cast member on the 1963–64 anthology series The Richard Boone Show.

In the 1964–1965 season, Morgan co-starred as Seldom Jackson in the 26-week NBC comedy/drama Kentucky Jones, starring Dennis Weaver, formerly of Gunsmoke.

Morgan is even more widely recognized as Officer Bill Gannon, Joe Friday's partner in the revived version of Dragnet (1967–1970).

Morgan had also appeared with Dragnet star Jack Webb in three film noir movies, Dark City (1950), Appointment with Danger (1951) and Pete Kelly's Blues (1955), and was an early regular member of Jack Webb's stock company of actors on the original Dragnet radio show. Morgan later worked on two other shows for Webb: 1971's The D.A. and the 1972–1974 Western series, Hec Ramsey. Morgan also appeared in at least one episode of Gunsmoke ("The Witness" – aired 11/23/1970).

Morgan appeared in the role of Inspector Richard Queen, uncle of Ellery Queen in the 1971 television film Ellery Queen: Don't Look Behind You.

1970s: M*A*S*H[edit]

Morgan's first appearance on M*A*S*H was in the show's third season (1974–1975), when he played the mentally unbalanced Major General Bartford Hamilton Steele in "The General Flipped at Dawn", which first aired on September 10, 1974.

The following season, Morgan joined the cast of M*A*S*H as Colonel Sherman T. Potter. A fan of the sitcom, Morgan replaced McLean Stevenson, who left the show at the end of the previous season. Unlike Stevenson's character Henry Blake, Potter was a career Army officer who was a firm yet good-humored, caring father figure to those under his command.

In 1980, Morgan won an Emmy award for his performance on M*A*S*H. When asked if he was a better actor after working with the show's talented cast, Morgan responded, "I don't know about that, but it's made me a better human being."[9] After the end of the series, Morgan reprised the Potter role in a short-lived spinoff series, AfterMASH.

Morgan also appeared in several Disney movies throughout the decade, including The Barefoot Executive, Snowball Express, Charley and the Angel, The Apple Dumpling Gang, The Cat from Outer Space (opposite McLean Stevenson) and The Apple Dumpling Gang Rides Again.

Later years[edit]

In 1986, he co-starred with Hal Linden in Blacke's Magic, a show about a magician who doubled as a detective solving unusual crimes. One season was made. Morgan's character, Leonard Blacke, was a semiretired con artist.

In 1987, Morgan reprised his Bill Gannon character, now a captain, for a supporting role in another film version of Dragnet, a parody and homage to the original series written by and starring Dan Aykroyd and costarring Tom Hanks and Christopher Plummer.

In 1987–1988, Morgan starred in the one-season situation comedy series You Can't Take It with You as family patriarch Martin Vanderhof.

In the 1990s, Morgan starred alongside Walter Matthau in a series of television movies for CBS as Stoddard Bell, a judge who is an acquaintance/nemesis/partner of Matthau's Harmon Cobb, an attorney (The Incident; An Incident in Baltimore, and Incident in a Small Town). He also lent his voice to an episode of The Simpsons from season seven, where he once again played Bill Gannon; in the episode "Mother Simpson", Gannon and Joe Friday (voiced by Harry Shearer) are FBI agents trying to track down Homer's mother, who is a fugitive from justice.

Morgan also had a recurring role on 3rd Rock from the Sun as Professor Suter, a colleague of Dick Solomon's. Morgan directed episodes for several TV series, including two episodes of The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, two episodes of Hec Ramsey, one episode of Adam-12, and eight episodes of M*A*S*H. Morgan had a guest role on The Jeff Foxworthy Show as Raymond and a guest role on Grace Under Fire as Jean's pot-smoking boyfriend.

In 2006, Morgan was inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum.

Personal life[edit]

Morgan's first marriage was to Eileen Detchon from 1940 until her death in 1985. During Morgan's time on M*A*S*H, a photograph of Detchon regularly appeared on the desk of his character. A drawing of a horse, seen on the wall behind Potter's desk, was drawn by Morgan's grandson, Jeremy Morgan. In addition, Eileen was the name of the wife of Officer Bill Gannon on Dragnet. Morgan had four sons with his first wife: Christopher, Charles, Paul, and Daniel (who died in 1989).

He then married Barbara Bushman Quine (granddaughter of silent film star Francis X. Bushman) on December 17, 1986. The marriage lasted until his death. In July 1996, he was arrested on domestic battery charges for striking his wife Barbara which caused her to be admitted to hospital.[10] The case was later dismissed.[11]

Morgan had two siblings, Marguerite and Arnold (both deceased).

Morgan was close friends with bandleader Glenn Miller, whom he met while filming Orchestra Wives in 1942, until Miller's death two years later. Morgan was later cast in the 1954 movie about his friend, The Glenn Miller Story, playing Chummy MacGregor. Morgan's son led the Glenn Miller Orchestra for some years.

Death[edit]

Morgan died peacefully in his sleep at 3:00 a.m. local time in Los Angeles, on December 7, 2011, at the age of 96.[3][12] His son, Charles, said he recently had been treated for pneumonia.[3] His body was cremated and his remains were given to his family.

Following Morgan's death, Mike Farrell, who played B.J. Hunnicutt opposite Morgan in M*A*S*H, released a statement:[13]

He was a wonderful man, a fabulous actor and a dear and close friend since the first day we worked together. As Alan [Alda] said, he did not have an unadorable bone in his body. He was a treasure as a person, an imp at times, and always a true professional. He had worked with the greats and never saw himself as one of them. But he was. He was the rock everyone depended on and yet he could cut up like a kid when the situation warranted it. He was the apotheosis, the finest example of what people call a ‘character actor’. What he brought to the work made everyone better. He made those who are thought of as ‘stars’ shine even more brightly. The love and admiration we all felt for him were returned tenfold in many, many ways. And the greatest and most selfless tribute to the experience we enjoyed was paid by Harry at the press conference when our show ended. He remarked that someone had asked him if working on M*A*S*H had made him a better actor. He responded by saying, 'I don’t know about that, but it made me a better human being.' It’s hard to imagine a better one.

Filmography[edit]

Films[edit]

  • The Kennel Murder Case (1933) as Gamble, the butler (uncredited)
  • To the Shores of Tripoli (1942) as Mouthy
  • The Loves of Edgar Allan Poe (1942) as Ebenezer Burling
  • The Omaha Trail (1942) as Henchman Nat
  • Orchestra Wives (1942) as Cully Anderson
  • Crash Dive (1943) as Brownie
  • The Ox-Bow Incident (1943) as Art Croft
  • Happy Land (1943) as Anton 'Tony' Cavrek
  • The Eve of St. Mark (1944) as Pvt. Shevlin
  • Roger Touhy, Gangster (1944) as Thomas J. 'Smoke' Reardon
  • Wing and a Prayer (1944) as Ens. Malcolm Brainard
  • Gentle Annie (1944) as Cottonwood Goss
  • A Bell for Adano (1945) as Capt. N. Purvis
  • State Fair (1945) as Barker
  • From This Day Forward (1946) as Hank Beesley
  • Johnny Comes Flying Home (1946) as Joe Patillo
  • Dragonwyck (1946) as Klaas Bleecker
  • Somewhere in the Night (1946) as Bath Attendant (uncredited)
  • It Shouldn't Happen to a Dog (1946) as Gus Rivers
  • Crime Doctor's Man Hunt (1946) as Jervis (uncredited)
  • The Gangster (1947) as Shorty
  • The Big Clock (1948) as Bill Womack
  • All My Sons (1948) as Frank Lubey
  • Race Street (1948) as Hal Towers
  • The Saxon Charm (1948) as Hermy
  • Moonrise (1948) as Billy Scripture
  • Yellow Sky (1948) as Half Pint
  • Down to the Sea in Ships (1949) as Britton
  • The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend (1949) as Hoodlum (uncredited)
  • Madame Bovary (1949) as Hyppolite
  • Strange Bargain (1949) as Lt. Richard Webb
  • Red Light (1949) as Rocky
  • Holiday Affair (1949) as Police Lieutenant
  • Hello Out There (1949) as The Young Gambler
  • Outside the Wall (1950) as Garth
  • The Showdown (1950) as Rod Main
  • Dark City (1950) as Soldier
  • Belle Le Grand (1951) as Abel Stone
  • When I Grow Up (1951) as Father Reed (modern)
  • Appointment with Danger (1951) as George Soderquist
  • The Highwayman (1951) as Tim
  • The Well (1951) as Claude Packard
  • The Blue Veil (1951) as Charles Hall
  • Boots Malone (1952) as Quarter Horse Henry
  • Scandal Sheet (1952) as Biddle
  • Bend of the River (1952) as Shorty
  • My Six Convicts (1952) as Dawson
  • High Noon (1952) as Sam Fuller
  • What Price Glory? (1952) as Sgt. Moran (uncredited)
  • Big Jim McLain (1952) as Narrator (voice, uncredited)
  • Apache War Smoke (1952) as Ed Cotten
  • Toughest Man in Arizona (1952) as Verne Kimber
  • Stop, You're Killing Me (1952) as Innocence
  • Thunder Bay (1953) as Rawlings
  • Arena (1953) as Lew Hutchins
  • Champ for a Day (1953) as Al Muntz
  • Torch Song (1953) as Joe Denner
  • The Glenn Miller Story (1954) as Chummy
  • Prisoner of War (1954) as Maj. O.D. Hale
  • The Forty-Niners (1954) as Alf Billings
  • About Mrs. Leslie (1954) as Fred Blue
  • The Far Country (1954) as Ketchum
  • Strategic Air Command (1955) as Sgt. Bible (flight engineer)
  • Not as a Stranger (1955) as Oley
  • Pete Kelly's Blues (1955) (uncredited)
  • The Bottom of the Bottle (1956) as Felix – Barkeep
  • Backlash (1956) as Tony Welker
  • Operation Teahouse (1956) as Himself
  • UFO (1956) as "Red Dog 1" (voice)
  • Star in the Dust (1956) as Lew Hogan
  • The Teahouse of the August Moon (1956) as Sgt. Gregovich
  • Under Fire (1957) as Sgt. Joseph C. Dusak
  • It Started with a Kiss (1959) as Charles Meriden
  • The Mountain Road (1960) as Sgt. 'Mike' Michaelson
  • Inherit the Wind (1960) as Judge Mel Coffey
  • Cimarron (1960) as Jesse Rickey
  • How the West Was Won (1962) as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
  • John Goldfarb, Please Come Home (1965) as Secretary of State Deems Sarajevo
  • Frankie and Johnny (1966) as Cully
  • What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? (1966) as Maj. Pott
  • The Flim-Flam Man (1967) as Sheriff Slade
  • Star Spangled Salesman (1968) as TV Cop
  • Support Your Local Sheriff! (1969) as Olly Perkins
  • Viva Max! (1969) as Chief of Police Sylvester
  • The Barefoot Executive (1971) as E.J. Crampton
  • Support Your Local Gunfighter! (1971) as Taylor
  • Scandalous John (1971) as Sheriff Pippin
  • Snowball Express (1972) as Jesse McCord
  • Charley and the Angel (1973) as The Angel formerly Roy Zerney
  • The Apple Dumpling Gang (1975) as Homer McCoy
  • The Shootist (1976) as Marshall Thibido
  • Maneaters Are Loose! (1978) as Toby Waites
  • The Cat from Outer Space (1978) as General Stilton
  • The Apple Dumpling Gang Rides Again (1979) as Maj. T.P. Gaskill
  • Scout's Honor (1980) as Mr. Briggs
  • The Flight of Dragons (1982) as Carolinus (voice)
  • Sparkling Cyanide TV Movie (1983) as Captain Kemp
  • Dragnet (1987) as Gannon
  • 14 Going on 30 (TV, 1988) as Uncle Herb
  • The Incident (TV, 1990) as Judge Bell
  • Against Her Will: An Incident in Baltimore (TV, 1992) as Judge Stoddard Bell
  • Incident in a Small Town (TV, 1994) as Judge Bell
  • Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick (1996)
  • Family Plan (1997) as Sol Rubins
  • Crosswalk (1999) as Dr. Chandler

TV[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^United States Census for 1930; Census Place: Muskegon, Muskegon, Michigan; Roll: 1014; p. 7B; Enumeration District: 27; Image: 830.0.
  2. ^ ab"Harry Morgan Interview". Archive of American Television. Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  3. ^ abcPollak, Michael (December 7, 2011). "Harry Morgan, Colonel Potter on 'M*A*S*H,' Dies at 96". The New York Times.
  4. ^Arnold, Laurence (December 7, 2011). "Harry Morgan, Colonel Potter on Landmark TV Show 'M*A*S*H,' Is Dead at 96". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
  5. ^Arnell, Bob (1946). Motion Picture. v.72. Macfadden/Bartell. p. 196 – via Motion Picture magazine"Henry Morgan".CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  6. ^Muskegon High School Distinguished GraduatesArchived August 20, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^"Pinewood Lake website". Pinewoodlake.org. May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
  8. ^Images of America, Trumbull Historical Society, 1997, p. 123.
  9. ^Elber, Lynn: "Harry Morgan made small roles big in TV, movies" Associated Press, December 8, 2011
  10. ^"Actor Harry Morgan Accused of Beating Wife". Los Angeles Time.
  11. ^"MASH' Star's Abuse Case Is Dismissed". Los Angeles Times.
  12. ^Ulaby, Neda (December 7, 2011). "Harry Morgan, M*A*S*H's Col. Potter, Dies At 96". NPR. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  13. ^"Harry Morgan remembered: Mike Farrell pays tribute to his M*A*S*H co-star". The Washington Post. December 8, 2011.
  14. ^IMDb

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Morgan
Henry Morgan on Letterman, February 8, 1982
Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan.jpg
Vital statistics
TitlePrivateer
Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
GenderMale
StatusDeceased
Ships{{{ships}}}
RelationshipsNone
AppearancesMentioned in: XXXV.
Portrayed byN/A

Henry Morgan (1635-1688) was a Welsh privateer, plantation owner, and later the Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. From his base in Port Royal, he raided settlements and shipping on the Spanish Main. 

Biography[]

Background[]

Henry Morgan was born in Monmouthshire in 1635. It is unknown how he made his way to the West Indies. A close friend of the Governor of Jamaica, Morgan was given letters of marque in  1667, when relations between England and Spain worsened yet again. He successfully raided Porto Bello, Puerto Principe, Maracaibo, and Panama City. 

After these raids, Morgan was arrested to appease the Spanish, with whom the English had signed a peace treaty. However, Morgan was treated as a hero by the populace in London and by the King. 

Morgan was knighted and returned to Jamaica, buying three plantations with the wealth he gained from his voyages. He was Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica for three separate, nonconsecutive terms. Morgan died in August of 1688 and was given a state funeral. 

Season Four[]

While the Pirate-Maroon alliance discusses a possible first move, the Jamaican Maroon Chief reveals that Barbados has fallen. Flint asks another Maroon Chief how many men he could recruit to move to the mainland using Bridgetown as a staging ground. He replies that he could muster seven or eight hundred men. Flint then says that if they could recruit 1/3 slaves in Barbados, they’ll have 1,200 men they could land anywhere they chose, with ships to support the landing. Flint then remarks that Henry Morgan possessed a similar force when he sacked Panama.

Sours: https://black-sails.fandom.com/wiki/Henry_Morgan

Wiki henry morgan

Henry Morgan (abt. 1635 - 1688)

SirHenryMorgan

Born about in Glamorgan, Llanrhymny (Llanrumney), South Walesmap

Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]

[sibling(s) unknown]

[children unknown]

Died in Lawrencefield, Jamaicamap

This page has been accessed 4,967 times.

Biography

Notables Project

Henry Morgan is Notable.

Welsh privateer, pirate and admiral of the English navy. Henry Morgan was the eldest son of Robert Morgan, a farmer living in the locality of Caerau, Cardiff, Wales, near what is now known as Ely, Cardiff, Wales, situated on the Ely River, in south-east Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. Robert Morgan (born c.1615) was a descendant from a cadet branch of the ‘Tredegar Morgans’ and had two brothers, Thomas and Edward. Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan (1st Baronet 1604-79) served in the Commonwealth forces during the English Civil War from 1642 to 1649. Edward Morgan was Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica after the Restoration of Charles II of England in 1660. Henry Morgan married his uncle Edward's daughter, cousin Mary Elizabeth Morgan in 1666. There was no issue and she died in 1696.

In his will signed 17 June 1688, he left his Jamaican property to his godsons Charles Byndloss (b.1668) and Henry Archbold on condition they adopted the surname of Morgan. These were the children of his two cousins Anna Petronilla Byndloss (née Morgan), and Johanna Archbold (née Morgan).

Died of Dropsie or tuberculosis ADDITIONAL INFO (ca. 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh Admiral and privateer, who made a name for activities in the Caribbean. He was one of the most notorious and successful privateers from Wales, and one of the most dangerous pirates who worked in the Spanish Main.

Henry Morgan was reportedly the oldest son of Robert Morgan, a squire of Llanrumney in the Welsh county of Monmouthshire. Other sources suggest he was from Abergavenny within the same county. An entry in the 'Bristol Apprentice Books' showing 'Servants to Foreign Plantations': February 9, 1655, included "Henry Morgan of Abergavenny, Labourer, Bound to Timothy Tounsend of Bristol, Cutler, for three years, to serve in Barbadoras on the like Condiciouns".

There was no record of Morgan before 1665. He later said that he left school early, and was "more used to the pike than the book". Exquemelin says that he was indentured in Barbados. After Morgan sued the publishers for libel and was awarded £200, Exquemelin was forced to retract his statement. Subsequent editions of his book were amended.

Richard Browne, Morgan's surgeon at Panama, said that Morgan came to Jamaica in 1658 as a young man, and raised himself to "fame and fortune by his valour". Recent versions of his life claim that, despite having had little experience as a sailor, Morgan sailed to the Caribbean to take part in the Western Design,[citation needed] Cromwell's plan to invade Hispaniola. His first battle at Santo Domingo ended in a failed attempt to take the island. The fleet moved on to Jamaica, which the English force successfully invaded and occupied.

His uncle Edward Morgan was Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica after the Restoration of Charles II of England in 1660. Henry Morgan married his uncle's daughter Mary, a cousin. Morgan was reportedly the "Captain Morgan" who joined the fleet of Christopher Myngs in 1663. He was part of the expedition of John Morris and Jackman when they took the Spanish settlements at Vildemos (on the Tabasco river); Trujillo, (Honduras) and Granada (in Coahuila, Mexico).

In late 1665, Morgan commanded a ship in the old privateer Edward Mansfield's expedition sent by Sir Thomas Modyford, the governor of Jamaica. They seized the islands of Providencia and Santa Catalina Island, Colombia. When Mansfield was captured by the Spanish and executed shortly afterward, the privateers elected Morgan as their admiral.

Career under Mansvelt By 1661 Commodore Christopher Mings appointed Morgan captain of his first vessel. He plundered the Mexican coast under Lord Thomas Hickman Windsor’s commission in 1665. When Lord Windsor, governor of Jamaica, refused to stop the pirates from attacking Spanish ships, the Crown relieved him, and appointed Sir Thomas Modyford in his place. Although Modyford proclaimed loyalty to the Crown, he became a critical element of Morgan’s exhibitions by going against the word of the king and granting Morgan letters of marque to attack Spanish ships and settlements. Modyford was originally appointed governor of Barbados for both his loyalty and service to King Charles II during the English Civil War and his familial relation to the First Duke of Albemarle, but he was later removed from this position. Modyford was then appointed Governor of Jamaica as an attempt to save his dignity. This, along with the Royalist’s defeat at Worcester, decreased Modyford’s loyalty to the crown. As governor, Modyford was required to call in all pirates and privateers of the West Indies because England and Spain were temporarily at peace. However, the majority of these buccaneers either refused to return or did not receive the message that there was a recall, including Morgan.

When Morgan did return, Modyford had already received letters from the King of England warning him to force all of the pirates to return to port. Modyford chose to neglect these warnings and continue to issue letters of marque under the guise that it was for the King’s best interest to protect Jamaica, and this was a necessary element in that goal. Because Modyford desired to get rid of the Dutch presence in the Caribbean he issued a letter of marque to Captain Edward Mansvelt to assemble a fleet of fifteen ships which was manned by roughly 500-600 men. Having just returned from a successful expedition of the Mexican Coast, where he captured several ships off the coast of Campeche, Morgan was appointed vice admiral of the fleet. Mansvelt was given orders to attack the Dutch settlement of Curaçao, but once the crew was out at sea it was decided that Curaçao was not lucrative enough for the impending danger associated with attacking it. With this in mind, a vote was taken and the crew decided that attacking a different settlement would be a safer and more lucrative alternative. Unhappy with this decision, many of the buccaneers deserted the expedition and headed back to port while others continued on with Admiral Mansvelt and Vice-Admiral Morgan to attack the Spanish island of Providence.

When Morgan and Mansvelt’s fleet arrived at Providence, the Spanish were unprepared. Unable to form a defense, the Spanish surrendered all of their forts. Mansvelt and Morgan ruthlessly decided to destroy all but one of these forts. The buccaneers lived in the city and collected all of its wealth while Morgan and Mansvelt sailed around Costa Rica. Eventually, they spotted a Spanish man-of-war on the horizon and decided to return to Jamaica to gather reinforcements so that the island of Providence could be a town run and inhabited by pirates. As a sign of his sympathy toward pirates Modyford appointed his brother, Sir James Modyford, as governor of Providence. In the mind of Mansvelt, the idea of a pirate-run settlement was brilliant. However, he and Modyford both overlooked the true essence of a pirate: a pirate is not a soldier who is disciplined and prepared to fight the world’s best armies when the armies were ready for them. Rather, Mansvelt’s pirates were conditioned to raid a town, then leave. Thus, the pirate reign in Providence was short-lived as the island was quickly recaptured by the Spanish. After this expedition, Modyford was again reprimanded by the King of England and asked to recall all of his pirates and privateers. Once again, Modyford refused.

After learning of a rumor that the Spanish planned to attack Jamaica in retaliation for the sack of Providence, Modyford provided yet another commission to the buccaneers. This time, he gave the commission directly to Morgan to take Spanish citizens prisoner in order to protect the island of Jamaica. Modyford used the excuse of protecting the King’s influence in the Americas, but this was most likely simply a guise for his own personal agenda of gaining money and keeping his post as Governor of Jamaica. Nonetheless, Morgan assembled a fleet of ten ships in a way that was quite different from most Admirals of the time. Instead of sending out a flyer and allowing willing buccaneers of the region to come to him, Morgan sailed to the places where the most daring pirates could be found. When he arrived at the ports, he dressed himself in red silk and wore fancy gold and jewels so that he appeared to be extremely successful so that more swashbucklers were drawn to him. Using a word-of-mouth approach, he was able to acquire five hundred of the best pirates in the area.

Puerto Principe: first independent command In 1667, he was commissioned by Modyford to capture some Spanish prisoners in Cuba in order to discover details of the threatened attack on Jamaica. Collecting 10 ships with 500 men, Morgan landed on the island and captured and sacked Puerto Principe (Camaguey).

Modyford almost immediately entrusted Morgan with another expedition against the Spaniards, and he proceeded to ravage the coast of Cuba. In a meeting held by Morgan prior to the start of their journey, he proposed that the fleet attack Havana. Although this suggestion showed his arrogance, after much debate it was decided that they did not have enough men to take Havana, so they decided instead to take Puerto Principe. While on their quest for Spanish ships, Morgan’s fleet encountered heavy storms that brought them to the south shore of modern-day Cuba as opposed to the north shore where they had originally aimed. Due to the rough journey, Morgan’s men had very little food and water and were forced to land on the south shore to search for provisions instead of continuing on to the north shore of Cuba. Once on land, the crew met a French crew that had also been driven ashore in search of provisions and decided to join forces. A Spanish prisoner that Morgan held hostage escaped and warned the citizens of Puerto Principe of the impending attack. The citizens quickly deserted the town with their valuables, leaving very little for the buccaneers. After searching the town and torturing its residents for information regarding the location of their riches, Morgan’s fleet was only able to gather fifty-thousand pieces of eight. This was not enough to pay off the debts that the buccaneers had accumulated back in Jamaica, so they were required to find more riches before returning to Port Royal.

Attack on Porto Bello In order to cover their debts, Morgan and his men decided to aim for a city that harbored lots of valuables. As the third most important Spanish city in the New World, Porto Bello was an obvious choice for the buccaneers. Furthermore, Porto Bello was considered the center of Spanish trade in the Americas, so it contained warehouses of the goods and valuables of many wealthy merchants. Because of its enormous concentration of wealth, Porto Bello was extremely well protected by three Spanish forts.

However, the French crew refused to take part in this voyage because they did not get along with Morgan’s English crew. It was reported that there was a dispute between a Frenchman and Englishman that had been decided to be solved in a duel when the Englishman stabbed the other in the back before the duel could take place. In addition to this, the French believed that they had been cheated out of their fair share of the loot by Morgan. Whereas the reputation of most pirates would have been ruined by this rumor, Morgan set sail to sack Porto Bello with his original fleet of ten ships and five-hundred men. When the fleet reached the settlement on the northern coast of South America, the buccaneers found the fortresses very intimidating. With this in mind, Morgan gave them a rousing speech in which he reminded them that the Spanish did not know of their presence and promised them gold and silver. When the sun went down, the ships began to sail towards Puerto do Naos where there was a river that could lead them to Porto Bello. With information gained from a prisoner, the buccaneers were able to quickly destroy the first fort. Seeing how easily the first two castles were taken, the third castle surrendered, enabling Morgan’s buccaneers to overrun the city. Not long after this, the Spanish counterattacked in an attempt to protect their wealth and center of trade but the buccaneers were ready for the battle and Morgan organized an ambush of the fleet in a narrow passage. After defeating the much larger and more powerful Spanish fleet, Morgan and his men continued to inhabit Porto Bello for two months while they collected all of the wealth of the city that they could find before ransoming the Spanish for the safety of its town and citizens. From the ransom alone, Morgan and his men collected roughly 100,000 pieces of eight to bring their total loot from Porto Bello to over 200,000 pieces of eight. In a foreshadowing of Morgan’s future endeavors, the governor of Panama asked him how he had beaten the Spanish army sent from his city along with an emerald ring and a request that he not attack Panama. Soon after, England sent Port Royal HMS Oxford (as a gift meant to protect Port Royal); Port Royal gave it to Morgan to help his career.

Because Modyford had already been warned to recall his pirates, his recent commission to Morgan once again put him under enormous pressure from the Crown. Modyford officially denounced the attacks on the town by citing that he sanctioned only attacks on ships. Modyford attempted to justify his commission by emphasizing the rumored Spanish invasion of Jamaica. However, he did not believe that merely talking of a rumored attack would be enough to save his governorship and dignity, so he decided to try to provoke the Spanish into actually attacking Jamaica. Although seemingly illogical, Modyford hoped to cover up his last commission by granting Morgan yet another one.

Maracaibo Raid In the same fashion as before, Morgan set out to assemble a fleet of buccaneers that would be willing to engage in a bold attack on the Spanish Main and was able to attract nine-hundred men to his eleven-ship fleet. Once gathered, Morgan brought his men to the Isla Vaca, also known as Cow Island, to decide on a city to attack. After deliberation it was decided that the Spanish settlement of Cartagena would be their intended target because of the riches it contained. It was one of Spain’s most important cities, and held all of the gold that was in transit from Peru to Spain, so sacking Cartagena would not only provoke the Spanish into an attack while weakening one of their strongest cities, but it would also make for a very large loot.

The night that the final decision to attack Cartagena was made, there was a celebration. During this rum-filled celebration, a few intoxicated sailors accidentally lit a fuse that ignited explosives on-board Morgan’s flagship, the Oxford, which was originally a gift given to Modyford to help protect Jamaica from privateers like Morgan. However, the ship ended up in Morgan’s possession and became his flagship. When the Oxford was destroyed, many men lost their lives, and many others chose to desert seeing the tragedy as an omen of bad luck, so the fleet was decreased to only ten ships and eight-hundred men. However, Morgan still continued onto the Spanish Main to attack Cartagena in March of 1669.

The voyage to Cartagena proved to be just as disastrous to the strength of the fleet. Because the crew was forced to sail into the wind the entire way to the Spanish Main, many of the vessels were unable to continue on because the either the sailors were too exhausted from working day and night or the ship was under too much stress. When Morgan finally made it to the Spanish Main, his original crew of nine-hundred had been diminished to only five hundred: a force far too weak to overtake the highly-protected city of Cartagena. A French captain onboard suggested to Morgan that they attempt to sack a town named Maracaibo that he had been to three years prior.

Reaching the town of Maracaibo, however, was no easy feat. The town was located on Lake Maracaibo, but to reach the lake they had to go through a narrow and shallow channel. Although the channel was only twelve feet deep, narrow, winding, and sprinkled with islands and sandbars, the French captain claimed that he could direct the ships safely through it. Unknown to him, the Spanish had built a fort at the channel’s narrowest point since the last time the captain had been there three years ago. When the fleet reached this point, they were unable to navigate the rough terrain because of the cannon and gun fire coming from the fort. Morgan was left with no choice but to order his men to land on the beach despite their lack of protection from the Spanish gun fire. Once nightfall arrived, Morgan and his men slowly entered the fort but only found that there were no Spaniards there at all. Instead, the Spanish had left a slow-burning explosive as a trap for the buccaneers.

In order to protect his fleet for their voyage back through the channel, Morgan stole all of the supplies from the fort and ordered his men to bury the cannons in the sand. Because the Spanish already knew about Morgan’s plan to attack Maracaibo, the men took canoes and small vessels through the channel to the town as opposed to the lengthy process of bringing the larger vessels. This modified plan was still not quick enough and the residents of Maracaibo were able to escape with their valuables before the buccaneers arrived. After searching the area and torturing any citizens they could find for three weeks, Morgan and his men loaded the large vessels with their provisions and booty, as well as prisoners to be used as messengers, and set off to attack the nearby town of Gibraltar.

On January 1669, HMS Oxford was blown up accidentally when the ammunitions depot was lit during a party, with Morgan and his officers narrowly escaping death. In March he sacked Maracaibo, Venezuela which had emptied out when his fleet was first spied, and afterwards spent a few weeks at the Venezuelan settlement of Gibraltar on Lake Maracaibo, torturing the wealthy residents to discover hidden treasure.

After collecting the wealth of the town and ransoming its citizens, Morgan loaded the ships to return home. Returning to Maracaibo, Morgan found three Spanish ships, the Magdalena, the San Luis, and the Soledad, waiting at the inlet to the Caribbean; he destroyed the Magdalena, and captured the Soledad, while the San Luis's crew burned down their ship to stop the pirates from having it.[citation needed] In the time that Morgan was ransacking the two towns, the Spaniards had reinforced the fort located at the narrowest point of the passage and barricaded the passage with three Spanish warships. Morgan and his men were given a choice to either surrender or be arrested, so they decided to fight for their freedom.

The buccaneers were outmanned by the Spanish, so they were forced to devise a clever plan to outsmart the Spanish. Morgan ordered the pirate’s largest ship, the Satisfaction, to be turned into a “fire ship” that would be sailed directly into the Spanish Flagship, the Magdalen. Hollowed out logs were filled with explosives and dressed to look like a pirate crew, and the twelve men that manned the ship were instructed to throw grappling hooks into the riggings of the Magdalen so that it couldn’t sail away. Miraculously, Morgan’s plan worked and the Magdalen was destroyed. The second largest Spanish ship, the Santa Louisa, was run ashore by the ship Morgan was now in control of. The final ship, La Marquesa was taken by the pirates after the ropes tangled. After the battle, Morgan was still unable to cross the channel because of the fort, but the Spanish had no ships with which to attack Morgan. Finally, by an ingenious stratagem, he faked a landward attack on the fort which convinced the governor to shift his cannon, allowing Morgan to slowly creep by the fort using only the movement of the tide. In doing so, he eluded the enemy's guns altogether and escaped in safety. On his return to Jamaica he was again reproved, but not punished by Modyford.

The Spaniards for their part started to react and threaten Jamaica. A new commission was given to Morgan as commander-in-chief of all the ships of war in Jamaica, to levy war on the Spaniards and destroy their ships and stores - the booty gained in the expedition being the only pay. Thus Morgan and his crew were on this occasion privateers, not pirates. After ravaging the coasts of Cuba and the mainland, Morgan determined on an expedition to Panama.

Burning of Panama and the loss of English support He recaptured the island of Santa Catalina on December 15, 1670, and, on December 27, he gained possession of the fortress of San Lorenzo in the Caribbean coast of Panama, killing 300 men of the garrison and leaving 23 alive. Then with 1,400 men he ascended the Chagres River towards the Pacific coast and Panama City.

On January 18, 1671, Morgan discovered that Panama had roughly 1,500 infantry and cavalry. He split his forces in two, using one to march through the forest and flank the enemy. The Spaniards were untrained and rushed Morgan's line where he cut them down with gunfire, only to have his flankers emerge and finish off the rest of the Spanish soldiers. Although Panama was at the time the richest city in New Spain, Morgan and his men obtained far less plunder than they had expected. Much of the city's wealth had been removed onto a Spanish ship that then stood out into the Gulf of Panama, beyond the looters' reach.[4] Most of the inhabitants' remaining goods were destroyed in a fire of unclear cause. Morgan's men tortured those residents of Panama they could catch, but very little gold was forthcoming from the victims. After Morgan's attack, the Panama city had to be rebuilt in a new site a few kilometres to the west (the current site). The former site is called Panamá Viejo and still contains the remaining parts of the old Panama City.

Because the sack of Panama violated a peace treaty between England and Spain, Morgan was arrested and conducted to the Kingdom of England in 1672. He proved he had no knowledge of the treaty. Instead of punishment, Morgan was knighted in 1674 before returning to Jamaica the following year to take up the post of Lieutenant Governor.

By 1681, then-acting governor Morgan had fallen out of favour with King Charles II, who was intent on weakening the semi-autonomous Jamaican Council, and was replaced by long-time political rival Thomas Lynch. He gained considerable weight and a reputation for rowdy drunkenness.

Retirement In 1683, Morgan was suspended from the Jamaican Council by the machinations of Governor Lynch. Also during this time, an account of Morgan's disreputable exploits was published by Alexandre Exquemelin, who once had been his confidante, probably as a barber-surgeon, in a Dutch volume entitled De Americaensche Zee-Roovers (History of the Buccaneers of America). Morgan took steps to discredit the book and successfully brought a libel suit against the book's publishers William Crooke and Thomas Malthus, securing a retraction and damages of two hundred English pounds. The book nonetheless contributed much to Morgan's reputed fame as a bloodthirsty pirate over time.

When Thomas Lynch died in 1684, his friend Christopher Monck was appointed to the governorship and arranged the dismissal of Morgan's suspension from the Jamaican Council in 1688. Morgan's health had steadily declined since 1681. He was diagnosed with "dropsie", but may have contracted tuberculosis in London, and died August 25, 1688. It is also possible that he may have had liver failure due to his heavy drinking. He is buried in Palisadoes cemetery, which sank beneath the sea after the 1692 earthquake.

Morgan had lived in an opportune time for pirates. He was able to use successfully the conflicts between England and her enemies both to support England and to enrich himself and his crews. With his death, the pirates who would follow would also use this same ploy, but with less successful results. He was also one of the few pirates who were able to retire from his piracy, having had great success, and with little legal retribution.

Popular culture Film The 1935 film Captain Blood, starring Errol Flynn, adapted from Rafael Sabatini's novel (see below), was loosely based on Morgan's life. This film provided Flynn with a star-making role. The 1942 film, The Black Swan, based on the novel of the same name by Rafael Sabatini, had an account of Henry Morgan after his becoming the governor of Jamaica. Morgan was portrayed by Laird Cregar in the film. The 1947 film Forever Amber, adapted from the novel by the same name, featured Morgan as a character. The 1952 film Blackbeard the Pirate features Henry Morgan as an antagonist, portrayed by Torin Thatcher. The 1961 film Morgan, the Pirate, starring Steve Reeves, gave an account of how Morgan became a pirate and was courted by the English to work for them. The 1961 film, Pirates of Tortuga, Robert Stephens portrayed Morgan's having set up an independent pirate kingdom on Tortuga instead of answering Charles II's summons to England. In 2006, The History Channel premiered the documentary True Caribbean Pirates, which told the known facts of Henry Morgan's life and death through re-enactments. Morgan was

Literature John Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold (1926), is about Henry Morgan's life. Book 1 of Nicholas Monsarrat's The Master Mariner has anti-hero Matthew Lawe sailing with Morgan as Mate. Kathleen Winslor's romance novel, Forever Amber (1944), featured Morgan as a character. F. Van Wyck Mason's 1949 novel "Cutlass Empire" romanticized Morgan's life, loves and battles. Josephine Tey's 1952 novel The Privateer dramatized Morgan's life. Kerry Newcomb's swashbuckler Mad Morgan, written in 2000, is based on Morgan's life and times. Kage Baker's short novel "The Maid on the Shore," published in the short story collection Dark Mondays, features Henry Morgan during his expedition to Panama. Berton Braley's 1934 poem This is the ballad of Henry Morgan Dudley Pope's Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan combines firsthand sailor's knowledge of the Caribbean and use of primary documents; noted in the bibliography of James Stuart Olson and Robert Shadle Historical Dictionary of the British Empire 1996 Stephan Talty's Empire of Blue Water: Henry Morgan and the Pirates Who Rule the Caribbean Waves, written in 2007, is a biography of Morgan and partial history of the conflict between the buccaneers and the Spanish Empire. Morgan makes appearances in W.A. Hoffman's historical romance series "Raised by Wolves". Morgan is likely the inspiration for the privateer Charles Hunter in Michael Crichton's novel Pirate Latitudes.[9] James A. Michener's 1989 novel, Caribbean, features a chapter on Henry Morgan's exploits. In Isaac Asimov's Robots In Time, Book 2, Marauder, time travelers met Captain Henry Morgan when they went back in time in search of a fugitive robot

Music Celtic rock band Tempest immortalized Morgan in "Captain Morgan", featured on their albums Bootleg, The 10th Anniversary Compilation and 15th Anniversary Collection. The album Good 'N' Cheap by Eggs over Easy featured a song titled "Henry Morgan" written and performed by Brien Bohn Hopkins and inspired by the novel Cup of Gold by John Steinbeck. The Mighty Diamonds recorded a song named "Morgan the Pirate". Scottish heavy metal band Alestorm named their first album Captain Morgan's Revenge. Reggae Artist Prince Far I featured Morgan in his song "Head of the Buccaneer" from the 1981 album Voice of Thunder.

Other products The "Captain Morgan" line of rum is named after the pirate and produced in both Puerto Rico and Jamaica. The Hotel Henry Morgan, located in Roatan, Honduras, the Port Morgan resort located in Haiti and Captain Morgan's Retreat and Vacation Club on Ambergris Caye, Belize are all named after the pirate. Sid Meier's Pirates! (2004 video game) features Henry Morgan as the greatest pirate in the Caribbean.


COMPTON ENCYCLOPEDIA:

Welsh buccaneer; commissioned by the governor of Jamaica to take Spanish possessions, he ravaged the coast of Cuba and captured the city of Panama; was arrested and returned to England for fighting after peace had been arranged between Spain and England, but his immense stolen wealth gained his pardon; Knighted and returned to Jamaica as lieutenant Governor.

Name

Name: Henry /Morgan/[1][2][3]

Birth

Date: 1635
Place: Glamorgan, Wales[4][5][6]
Date: 1635
Place: Llanrhymney, Glamorgan, , Wales
Date: 1610
Place: Glamorgan, Wales
Date: 1635
Place: Llanrhymney, Glamorgan, , Wales

Death

Date: 25 AUG 1688
Place: Lawrencefield, Jamaca[7][8]
Date: 25 AUG 1688
Place: Lawrencefield, Jamaca[9]

Burial

Place: Kingston, Kingston, Jamaica[10]

Sources

  1. ↑ Source: #S286
  2. ↑ Source: #S287 Object: @[email protected]
  3. ↑ Source: #S175 Page: Volume: 160; SAR Membership Number: 31872 Object: @[email protected]
  4. ↑ Source: #S287 Object: @[email protected]
  5. ↑ Source: #S175 Page: Volume: 160; SAR Membership Number: 31872 Object: @[email protected]
  6. ↑ Source: #S286
  7. ↑ Source: #S287 Object: @[email protected]
  8. ↑ Source: #S286
  9. ↑ Source: #S175 Page: Volume: 160; SAR Membership Number: 31872 Object: @[email protected]
  10. ↑ Source: #S286
  • Wikipedia - Henry Morgan
  • Source: S175 Author: Ancestry.com Title: U.S., Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970 Publication: Name: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2011; Repository: #R1
  • Repository: R1 Name: Ancestry.com Address: E-Mail Address: Phone Number:
  • Source: S286 Author: Ancestry.com Title: Web: International, Find A Grave Index Publication: Name: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2013; Repository: #R1
  • Source: S287 Author: Ancestry.com Title: Dictionary of National Biography, Volumes 1-20, 22 Publication: Name: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2010; Repository: #R1

•Historical-Information @ Genealogyplusjamaica.com

•Yba.llgc.org.uk - Henry Morgan

•Data-wales.co.uk - Morgan

•Hausegenealogy.com - Morgan

•Henry Morgan @ Findagrave

•Capt. Henry Morgan @ Latinamericanhistory.about.com

•Wikisource - Henry Morgan

•Biography Of Sir Henry Morgan 1635-1688 (The) @ Houseofstratus.com

•Henry Morgan - Blog @ Maritimeprofessional.com

•Sir John Morgan @ Historyofparliamentonline.org

•Wikipedia - Gov. Edward Morgan

Acknowledgements

This biography was auto-generated by a GEDCOM import. Morgan-8161 was created by Carol Miller through the import of McKnight-Wilkin_2014-10-03.ged on Oct 3, 2014.



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Sours: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Morgan-8161
Radio WNEW - The Steve Allen Show with guest Henry Morgan (1987)

Captain Morgan in popular culture

Sir Henry Morgan (c. 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welshpirate, privateer and buccaneer. He made himself famous during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main.[1]

Comics[edit]

Film and television[edit]

  • The 1935 film Captain Blood, starring Errol Flynn, adapted from Rafael Sabatini's novel (see below), was loosely based on Morgan's life. This film provided Flynn with a star-making role.
  • The 1941 movie Horror Island has characters searching for the buried treasure of Henry Morgan.
  • The 1942 film, The Black Swan, based on the novel of the same name by Rafael Sabatini, had an account of Henry Morgan after his becoming the governor of Jamaica. Morgan was portrayed by Laird Cregar in the film.
  • The 1952 film Blackbeard the Pirate features Henry Morgan as an antagonist, portrayed by Torin Thatcher.
  • The 1961 film Morgan, the Pirate, starring Steve Reeves, gave an account of how Morgan became a pirate and was courted by the English to work for them.
  • The 1961 film, Pirates of Tortuga, Robert Stephens portrayed Morgan's having set up an independent pirate kingdom on Tortuga instead of answering Charles II's summons to England.
  • In a 1965 episode of the TV sitcom The Munsters, "The Treasure of Mockingbird Heights", Herman and Grandpa Munster discover a secret chamber and a clue to Henry Morgan's pirate treasure hidden on the Munsters' property.
  • The 1976 film, The Black Corsair, a character named Captain Morgan was portrayed by Angelo Infanti.
  • In 2003, Henry Morgan was the namesake of the Morgan Tribe in Survivor: Pearl Islands.
  • In 2006, The History Channel premiered the documentary True Caribbean Pirates, which told the known facts of Henry Morgan's life and death through re-enactments. Morgan was portrayed by Lance J. Holt.
  • In the 2003 film, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, Henry Morgan is mentioned as being one of the pirates who supposedly created the Brethren Court's Pirate's Code, along with Bartolomeu Português.
  • 2013 Documentary "The Unsinkable Henry Morgan." [1]
  • In 2015, "Expedition Unknown" features Captain Morgan's Pirate Legacy in a journey to Panama in Season 1 Episode 7.

Literature[edit]

Morgan's Vice-Admiral Joseph Bradley, The Taking of Castle Lawrence (on the approach to Chagres), from the Pirates of the Spanish Main series (N19) for Allen & Ginter Cigarettes MET DP835036
  • Rafael Sabatini's novel Captain Blood is based in large part on Morgan's career.
  • Emilio Salgari's Caribbean saga is centred on the fictitious character of Emilio di Roccabruna, aka The Black Corsair, whose lieutenant is the historical Henry Morgan. He becomes the main character in Salgari's 1904 novel Yolanda, the Black Corsair's daughter.
  • John Masefield's 1920 poem Captain Stratton's Fancy (later set to music by Peter Warlock) identifies Capt. Stratton as "the old bold mate of Henry Morgan".
  • John Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold (1929), is about Henry Morgan's life.
  • Book 1 of Nicholas Monsarrat's The Master Mariner has anti-hero Matthew Lawe sailing with Morgan as Mate.
  • Doc Savage seeks Henry Morgan's lost treasure on the Canadian Pacific coast in Brand of the Werewolf, Doc Savage Magazine, January 1934, and reprints.
  • F. Van Wyck Mason's 1949 novel Cutlass Empire romanticised Morgan's life, loves and battles.
  • Josephine Tey's 1952 novel The Privateer dramatised Morgan's life.
  • Kage Baker's short novel The Maid on the Shore, published in the short story collection Dark Mondays, features Henry Morgan during his expedition to Panama.
Sir Henry Morgan, Capture of Panama, from the Pirates of the Spanish Main series (N19) for Allen & Ginter Cigarettes MET DP835022
  • Berton Braley's 1934 poem This is the ballad of Henry Morgan
  • Ian Fleming's 1954 novel Live and Let Die centres round events that follow the discovery of treasure hidden by Morgan.
  • Dudley Pope's Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan combines first-hand sailor's knowledge of the Caribbean and use of primary documents; noted in the bibliography of James Stuart Olson and Robert Shadle Historical Dictionary of the British Empire 1996
  • Morgan is likely the inspiration for the privateer Charles Hunter in Michael Crichton's novel Pirate Latitudes.[4]
  • James A. Michener's 1989 novel, Caribbean, features a chapter on Henry Morgan's exploits.
  • In Isaac Asimov's Robots in Time, Book 2, Marauder, time travellers met Captain Henry Morgan when they went back in time in search of a fugitive robot.
  • In the 1954 novel Deadmen's Cave by Leonard Wibberley, Morgan plays a major role in a hearty pirate tale of adventure, revenge, treasure, and redemption.
  • In Nicholas Monsarrat's 1978 novel The Master Mariner, Book 1: Running Proud, Morgan appears in part 3 as a notorious, charismatic Buccaneer admiral, with unstable personality, charming one day and diabolically evil the next day.
  • In James A. Owen's novel series, The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica, Henry Morgan is in reality, a Yankee engineer named Hank Morgan (A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court), who served as one of the time travelling Messengers of the Caretakers of the Geographica (one of his assignments landed him in the Arthurian Age). After accidentally getting lost in time and space, he ends up in the Caribbean Islands and alters his name to Henry Morgan, where he attempts to find solutions to get back to his own time and ends up becoming the pirate.
  • Lloyd Shepherd's 2012 novel The English Monster features Henry Morgan.
  • He is mentioned in the 2013 novel, Time Riders: The Pirate Kings by Alex Scarrow when two of the main characters, Liam and Rashim, go back in time to 1666 and become privateers in the Caribbean Sea.

Music[edit]

  • The album Good 'N' Cheap by Eggs over Easy featured a song titled "Henry Morgan" written and performed by Brien Bohn Hopkins and inspired by the novel Cup of Gold by John Steinbeck.
  • The Mighty Diamonds recorded a song named "Morgan the Pirate".
  • Scottish heavy metal band Alestorm named their first album Captain Morgan's Revenge, and prior to this, had an instrumental called "The Curse of Captain Morgan" on their EP "Terror on the High Seas", in part of the song "Captain Morgan's Revenge", before signing with Napalm Records and renaming themselves from Battleheart.
  • Reggae Artist Prince Far I featured Morgan in his song "Head of the Buccaneer" from the 1981 album Voice of Thunder.
  • OPM reference Captain Morgan in the song El Capitan.
  • Pirate themed Celtic Punk/Folk Rock band Ye Banished Privateers pay homage to Henry Morgan in the song Welcome to Tortuga on their album Songs and Curses.
  • In Peter Tosh's song 'You Can't Blame The Youth' Morgan is highlighted as a figure from Jamaica's history who, although being revered, was in actuality a monster.[5]
  • The band Wylde Nept has a song about Captain Morgan 'taking Royale' without cannon fire, a humorous view at his change from being a pirate to the governorship. The last verse opines that Captain Morgan will return to his former ways in the afterlife, when he finds there is no rum in heaven.

Other products[edit]

  • The Captain Morgan brand of rum is named after the privateer.
  • The Hotel Henry Morgan, located in Roatan, Honduras, the Port Morgan resort located in Haiti and Captain Morgan's Retreat and Vacation Club on Ambergris Caye, Belize are all named after the privateer.
  • The video game Sid Meier's Pirates! features Henry Morgan as the greatest pirate in the Caribbean. Incorrectly, Morgan's flagship in the game is the Queen Anne's Revenge, which was historically the ship of fellow pirate Blackbeard.
  • Age of Pirates 2: City of Abandoned Ships (2009 video game) features Henry Morgan as one of the greatest pirate in the Caribbean, the Chief-in-Command of Brotherhood of Coast, and player can complete series of tasks given by Henry Morgan.
  • In the Japanese comic-book series, One Piece there is a character named Captain "Axe-Hand" Morgan. Series creator Eiichiro Oda confirmed in a Q&A section in the serialized manga that Morgan is indeed named after Henry Morgan.
  • In the video game Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag, set a few decades after Morgan's death, his outfit is an unlockable feature. His sacking of Panama is also mentioned by Laureano de Torres y Ayala, Governor of Cuba, during a conversation with Lawrence Prince, overheard by the main character.
  • The 1933 Australian radio series Afloat With Henry Morgan featured Morgan as a main character, and contains many references to Morgan's exploits. It was produced by and starred George Edwards.
  • In the video game Caribbean! by Snowbird Games, Henry Morgan appears as a vassal of the Brotherhood of Coast, one of the main factions in the game.

References[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Morgan_in_popular_culture

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Henry Morgan

For other people named Henry Morgan, see Henry Morgan (disambiguation).

Welsh privateer and political office holder

Sir Henry Morgan (Welsh: Harri Morgan; 24 January 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh privateer, plantation owner, and, later, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. From his base in Port Royal, Jamaica, he raided settlements and shipping on the Spanish Main, becoming wealthy as he did so. With the prize money from the raids he purchased three large sugar plantations on the island.

Much of Morgan's early life is unknown. He was born in Monmouthshire,[n 1] but it is not known how he made his way to the West Indies, or how he began his career as a privateer. He was probably a member of a group of raiders led by Sir Christopher Myngs in the early 1660s during the Anglo-Spanish War. Morgan became a close friend of Sir Thomas Modyford, the Governor of Jamaica. When diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of England and Spain worsened in 1667, Modyford gave Morgan a letter of marque, a licence to attack and seize Spanish vessels. Morgan subsequently conducted successful and highly lucrative raids on Puerto Principe (now Camagüey in modern Cuba) and Porto Bello (now Portobelo in modern Panama). In 1668 he sailed for Maracaibo and Gibraltar, both on Lake Maracaibo in modern-day Venezuela. He raided both cities and stripped them of their wealth before destroying a large Spanish squadron as he escaped.

In 1671 Morgan attacked Panama City, landing on the Caribbean coast and traversing the isthmus before he attacked the city, which was on the Pacific coast. The battle was a rout, although the privateers profited less than in other raids. To appease the Spanish, with whom the English had signed a peace treaty, Morgan was arrested and summoned to London in 1672, but was treated as a hero by the general populace and the leading figures of government and royalty including Charles II.

Morgan was appointed a Knight Bachelor in November 1674 and returned to the Colony of Jamaica shortly afterward to serve as the territory's Lieutenant Governor. He served on the Assembly of Jamaica until 1683 and on three occasions he acted as Governor of Jamaica in the absence of the post-holder. A memoir published by Alexandre Exquemelin, a former shipmate of Morgan's, accused the privateer of widespread torture and other offences; Morgan brought a libel suit against the book's English publishers and won, although the black picture Exquemelin portrayed of Morgan has affected history's view of the Welshman. He died in Jamaica on 25 August 1688. His life was romanticised after his death and he became the inspiration for pirate-themed works of fiction across a range of genres.

Early life[edit]

Henry Morgan was born around 1635 in Wales, either in Llanrumney or Pencarn, (both in Monmouthshire, between Cardiff and Newport)[n 1][n 2] The historian David Williams, writing in the Dictionary of Welsh Biography, observes that attempts to identify his parents and antecedents "have all proved unsatisfactory", although his will referred to distant relations. Several sources state Morgan's father was Robert Morgan, a farmer.[n 3] Nuala Zahedieh, writing for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, states that details of Morgan's early life and career are uncertain, although in later life he stated that he had left school early and was "much more used to the pike than the book".

It is unknown how Morgan made his way to the Caribbean. He may have travelled to the Caribbean as part of the army of Robert Venables, sent by Oliver Cromwell as part of the Caribbean expedition against the Spanish in the West Indies in 1654, or he may have served as an apprentice to a maker of cutlery for three years in exchange for the cost of his emigration. Richard Browne, who served as surgeon under Morgan in 1670 stated that Morgan had travelled either as a "private gentleman" soon after the 1655 capture of Jamaica by the English, or he may have been abducted in Bristol and transported to Barbados, where he was sold as a servant. In the 17th century the Caribbean offered an opportunity for young men to become rich quickly, although significant investment was needed to obtain high returns from the sugar export economy. Other opportunities for financial gain were through trade or plunder of the Spanish Empire. Much of the plunder was from privateering, whereby individuals and ships were commissioned by government to attack the country's enemies.[n 4]

Career as a privateer[edit]

It is probable that in the early 1660s Morgan was active with a group of privateers led by Sir Christopher Myngs attacking Spanish cities and settlements in the Caribbean and Central America when England was at war with Spain. It is likely that in 1663 Morgan captained one of the ships in Myngs' fleet, and took part in the attack on Santiago de Cuba and the Sack of Campeche on the Yucatán Peninsula.[n 5]

Sir Thomas Modyford had been appointed the Governor of Jamaica in February 1664 with instructions to limit the activities of the privateers; he made a proclamation against their activities on 11 June 1664, but economic practicalities led to his reversing the policy by the end of the month. About 1,500 privateers used Jamaica as a base for their activity and brought much revenue to the island. As the planting community of 5,000 was still new and developing, the revenue from the privateers was needed to avoid economic collapse. A privateer was granted a letter of marque which gave him a licence to attack and seize vessels, normally of a specified country, or with conditions attached. A portion of all spoils obtained by the privateers was given to the sovereign or the issuing ambassador.

In August 1665 Morgan, along with fellow captains John Morris and Jacob Fackman, returned to Port Royal with a large cargo of valuables. Modyford was impressed enough with the spoils to report back to the government that "Central America was the properest [sic] place for an attack on the Spanish Indies". Morgan's activities over the following two years are not documented, but in early 1666 he was married in Port Royal to his cousin, Mary Morgan, the daughter of Edward, the island's Deputy Governor; the marriage gave Henry access to the upper levels of Jamaican society. The couple had no children.

Hostilities between the English and Dutch in 1664 led to a change in government policy: colonial governors were now authorised to issue letters of marque against the Dutch.[n 6] Many of the privateers, including Morgan, did not take up the letters, although an expedition to conquer the Dutch island of Sint Eustatius led to the death of Morgan's father-in-law, who was leading a 600-man force.

Sources differ about Morgan's activities in 1666. H. R. Allen, in his biography of Morgan, considers the privateer was the second-in-command to Captain Edward Mansvelt. Mansvelt had been issued a letter of marque for the invasion of Curaçao, although he did not attack Willemstad, the main city, either after he decided that it was too well defended or that there was insufficient plunder.[n 7] Alternatively, Jan Rogoziński and Stephan Talty, in their histories of Morgan and piracy, record that during the year, Morgan oversaw the Port Royal militia and the defence of Jamaica; Fort Charles at Port Royal was partly constructed under his leadership.[n 8] It was around this time that Morgan purchased his first plantation on Jamaica.

Attacks on Puerto Principe and Porto Bello (1667–1668)[edit]

Puerto Principe being sacked in 1668

In 1667 diplomatic relations between the kingdoms of England and Spain were worsening, and rumours began to circulate in Jamaica about a possible Spanish invasion. Modyford authorised privateers to take action against the Spanish, and issued a letter of marque to Morgan "to draw together the English privateers and take prisoners of the Spanish nation, whereby he might inform of the intention of that enemy to attack Jamaica, of which I have frequent and strong advice". He was given the rank of admiral and, in January 1668, assembled 10 ships and 500 men for the task; he was subsequently joined by 2 more ships and 200 men from Tortuga (now part of Haiti).

Morgan's letter of marque gave him permission to attack Spanish ships at sea; there was no permission for attacks on land. Any plunder obtained from the attacks would be split between the government and the owners of the ships rented by the privateers. If the privateers stepped outside their official remit and raided a city, any resultant plunder would be retained by the privateers. Rogoziński observes that "attacks on cities were illegal piracy—but extremely profitable", although Zahedieh records that if Morgan was able to provide evidence of a potential Spanish attack, the attacks on cities were justifiable under the terms of his commission. Morgan's initial plan was to attack Havana, but, on discovering it was heavily defended, changed the target to Puerto Principe (now Camagüey), a town 50 miles (80 km) inland. Morgan and his men took the town, but the treasure obtained was less than hoped for. According to Alexandre Exquemelin, who sailed with Morgan, "It caused a general resentment and grief, to see such a small booty". When Morgan reported the taking of Puerto Principe to Modyford, he informed the governor that they had evidence that the Spanish were planning an attack on British territory: "we found seventy men had been pressed to go against Jamaica ... and considerable forces were expected from Vera Cruz and Campeachy ... and from Porto Bello and Cartagena to rendezvous at St Jago of Cuba [Santiago]".

Morgan's attack on the Castillo de San Jeronimo, Porto Bello

After the action, one of the English privateers quarrelled with one of his French shipmates and stabbed him in the back, killing him. Before a riot between the French and English sailors could begin, Morgan arrested the English sailor, and promised the French sailors that the man would be hanged on his return to Port Royal. Morgan kept his word and the sailor was hanged. After dividing the spoils of the conquest of Puerto Principe, Morgan announced a plan to attack Porto Bello (now in modern-day Panama). The city was the third largest and strongest on the Spanish Main, and on one of the main routes of trade between the Spanish territories and Spain. Because of the value of the goods passing through its port, Porto Bello was protected by two castles in the harbour and another in the town. The 200 French privateers, unhappy with the division of the treasure and the murder of their countryman, left Morgan's service and returned to Tortuga. Morgan and his ships briefly landed at Port Royal before leaving for Porto Bello.

On 11 July 1668 Morgan anchored short of Porto Bello and transferred his men to 23 canoes, which they paddled to within three miles (4.8 km) of the target. They landed and approached the first castle from the landward side, where they arrived half an hour before dawn. They took the three castles and the town quickly. The privateers lost 18 men, with a further 32 wounded; Zahedieh considers the action at Porto Bello displayed a "clever cunning and expert timing which marked ... [Morgan's] brilliance as a military commander".

Exquemelin wrote that in order to take the third castle, Morgan ordered the construction of ladders wide enough for three men to climb abreast; when they were completed he "commanded all the religious men and women whom he had taken prisoners to fix them against the walls of the castle ... these were forced, at the head of the companies to raise and apply them to the walls ... Thus many of the religious men and nuns were killed". Terry Breverton, in his biography of Morgan, writes that when a translation of Exquemelin's book was published in England, Morgan sued for libel and won. The passage about the use of nuns and monks as a human shield was retracted from subsequent publications in England.

Morgan and his men remained in Porto Bello for a month. He wrote to Don Agustín, the acting president of Panama, to demand a ransom for the city of 350,000 pesos.[n 9] As they stripped the city of its wealth it is probable that torture was used on the residents to uncover hidden caches of money and jewels. Zahedieh records that there were no first-hand reports from witnesses that confirmed Exquemelin's claim of widespread rape and debauchery. After an attempt by Don Agustín to recapture the city by force – his army of 800 soldiers was repelled by the privateers – he negotiated a ransom of 100,000 pesos. Following the ransom and the plunder of the city, Morgan returned to Port Royal, with between £70,000 and £100,000 of money and valuables; Zahedieh reports that the figures were more than the agricultural output of Jamaica, and nearly half Barbados's sugar exports. Each privateer received £120 – equivalent to five or six times the average annual earnings of a sailor of the time. Morgan received a five per cent share for his work; Modyford received a ten per cent share, which was the price of Morgan's letter of marque. As Morgan had overstepped the limits of his commission, Modyford reported back to London that he had "reproved" him for his actions although, Zahedieh observes, in Britain "Morgan was widely viewed as a national hero and neither he nor Modyford were rebuked for their actions".

Raids on Maracaibo and Gibraltar (1668–1669)[edit]

Morgan did not stay long in Port Royal and in October 1668 sailed with ten ships and 800 men for Île-à-Vache, a small island he used as a rendezvous point. His plan was to attack the Spanish settlement of Cartagena de Indias, the richest and most important city on the Spanish Main. In December he was joined by a former Royal Navyfrigate, Oxford, which had been sent to Port Royal to aid in any defence of Jamaica. Modyford sent the vessel to Morgan, who made it his flagship. On 2 January 1669 Morgan called a council of war for all his captains, which took place on Oxford. A spark in the ship's powder magazine destroyed the ship and over 200 of its crew.[n 10] Morgan and the captains seated on one side of the table were blown into the water and survived; the four captains on the other side of the table were all killed.

The loss of Oxford meant Morgan's flotilla was too small to attempt an attack on Cartagena. Instead he was persuaded by a French captain under his command to repeat the actions of the pirate François l'Olonnais two years previously: an attack on Maracaibo and Gibraltar, both on Lake Maracaibo in modern-day Venezuela. The French captain knew the approaches to the lagoon, through a narrow and shallow channel. Since l'Olonnais and the French captain had visited Maracaibo, the Spanish had built the San Carlos de la Barra Fortress, 20 miles (32 km) outside the city, on the approach. Talty states that the fortress was placed in an excellent position to defend the town, but that the Spanish had undermanned it, leaving only nine men to load and fire the fortress's 11 guns. Under covering cannon fire from the privateer's flagship, Lilly, Morgan and his men landed on the beach and stormed the fortification; they found it empty when they eventually breached its defences. A search soon found that the Spanish had left a slow-burning fuse leading to the fort's powder kegs as a trap for the buccaneers, which Morgan extinguished. The fort's guns were spiked and then buried so they could not be used against the privateers when they returned from the rest of their mission.

Morgan arrived at Maracaibo to find the city largely deserted, its residents having been forewarned of his approach by the fortress's troops. He spent three weeks sacking the city. Privateers searched the surrounding jungle to find the escapees; they, and some of the remaining occupants, were tortured to find where money or treasure had been hidden. Satisfied he had stolen all he could, he sailed south across Lake Maracaibo, to Gibraltar. The town's occupants refused to surrender, and the fort fired enough of a barrage to ensure Morgan kept his distance. He anchored a short distance away and his men landed by canoe and assaulted the town from the landward approach. He met scant resistance, as many of the occupants had fled into the surrounding jungle. He spent five weeks in Gibraltar, and there was again evidence that torture was used to force residents to reveal hidden money and valuables.

Four days after he left Maracaibo, Morgan returned. He was told that a Spanish defence squadron, the Armada de Barlovento, was waiting for him at the narrow passage between the Caribbean and Lake Maracaibo, where the San Carlos de la Barra Fortress was sited. The forces, under the command of Don Alonso del Campo y Espinosa, had 126 cannon with which to attack Morgan, and had re-armed San Carlos de la Barra Fortress. The Spaniards had orders to end piracy in the Caribbean, and negotiations between Morgan and Espinosa continued for a week. The final offer put by the Spanish commander was for Morgan to leave all their spoils and slaves and to return to Jamaica unmolested, but no agreement was reached that would allow Morgan and his men to pass the fleet with their spoils but without attack. Morgan put the Spaniards' offers to his men, who voted instead to fight their way out. As they were heavily outgunned, one privateer suggested that a fire ship aimed at Espinosa's flagship, Magdalen would work.

To this end, a crew of 12 prepared a ship that had been seized in Gibraltar. They disguised vertical logs of wood with headwear, to make the Spaniards believe that the vessel was fully crewed. To make it look more heavily armed, additional portholes were cut in the hull and logs placed to resemble cannons. Barrels of powder were placed in the ship and grappling irons laced into the ships rigging, to catch the ropes and sails of Magdalen and ensure the vessels would become entangled.

Morgan destroys the Spanish Armada de Barlovento at Lake Maracaibo 1669

On 1 May 1669 Morgan and his flotilla attacked the Spanish squadron. The fire ship plan worked, and Magdalen was shortly aflame; Espinosa abandoned his flagship and made his way to the fort, where he continued to direct events. The second-largest Spanish ship, Soledad, tried to move away from the burning vessel, but a problem with the rigging meant they drifted aimlessly; privateers boarded the ship, fixed the rigging and claimed the craft as plunder. The third Spanish vessel was also sunk by the privateers. Morgan still needed to pass the San Carlos de la Barra Fortress, but was still out-gunned by the stronghold, which had the ability to destroy the privateer fleet if it tried to pass. The privateer decided to negotiate, and threatened to sack and burn Maracaibo if he was not allowed to pass. Although Espinosa refused to negotiate, the citizens of Maracaibo entered into talks with Morgan, and agreed to pay him 20,000 pesos and 500 head of cattle if he agreed to leave the city intact. During the course of the negotiations with the Maracaibos, Morgan had undertaken salvage operations on Magdalen, and secured 15,000 pesos from the wreck. Before taking any action, Morgan tallied his takings and divided it equally between his ships, to ensure that it was not all lost if one ship was sunk; it totalled 250,000 pesos, and a huge quantity of merchandise and a number of local slaves.

Morgan observed that Espinosa had set his cannon for a landward attack from the privateers – as they had done previously. The privateers faked a landing of their forces. The fort and its battlements were stripped of men as the Spanish prepared for a night assault from the English forces. That evening, with Spanish forces deployed to repel a landing, Morgan's fleet raised anchor without unfurling their sails; the fleet moved on the tide, raising sail only when it had moved level with the fortress, and Morgan and his men made their way back to Port Royal unscathed.[n 11] Zahedieh considers the escape showed Morgan's "characteristic cunning and audacity".

During his absence from Port Royal, a pro-Spanish faction had gained the ear of King Charles II, and English foreign policy had changed accordingly. Modyford admonished Morgan for his action, which had gone beyond his commission, and revoked the letters of marque; no official action was taken against any of the privateers. Morgan invested a share of his prize money in an 836-acre (338 ha) plantation – his second such investment.

Attack on Panama (1669–1672)[edit]

In 1669 Mariana, the Queen Regent of Spain, ordered attacks on English shipping in the Caribbean. The first action took place in March 1670 when Spanish privateers attacked English trade ships. In response Modyford commissioned Morgan "to do and perform all manner of exploits, which may tend to the preservation and quiet of this island". By December Morgan was sailing toward the Spanish Main with a fleet of over 30 English and French ships carrying a large number of privateers.[n 12] Zahedieh observes that the army of privateers was the largest that had gathered in the Caribbean at the time, which was "a mark of Morgan's renown".

Morgan's first action was to take the connected islands of Old Providence and Santa Catalina in December 1670. From there his fleet sailed to Chagres, the port from which ships were loaded with goods to transport back to Spain. Morgan took the town and occupied Fort San Lorenzo, which he garrisoned to protect his line of retreat. On 9 January 1671, with his remaining men, he ascended the Chagres River and headed for Old Panama City, on the Pacific Coast. Much of the journey was on foot, through dense rainforests and swamps. The governor of Panama had been forewarned of a potential attack, and had sent Spanish troops to attack Morgan and his men along the route. The privateers transferred to canoes to complete part of the journey, but were still able to beat off the ambushes with ease. After three days, with the river difficult to navigate in places, and with the jungle thinning out, Morgan landed his men and travelled overland across the remaining part of the isthmus.

The privateers, including Captain Robert Searle, arrived at Old Panama City on 27 January 1671; they camped overnight before attacking the following day. They were opposed by approximately 1,200 Spanish infantry and 400 cavalry; most were inexperienced. Morgan sent a 300-strong party of men down a ravine that led to the foot of a small hill on the Spanish right flank. As they disappeared from view, the Spanish front line thought the privateers were retreating, and the left wing broke rank and chased, followed by the remainder of the defending infantry. They were met with well-organised firing from Morgan's main force of troops. When the party came into view at the end of the ravine, they were charged by the Spanish cavalry, but organised fire destroyed the cavalry and the party attacked the flank of the main Spanish force. In an effort to disorganise Morgan's forces, the governor of Panama released two herds of oxen and bulls onto the battlefield; scared by the noise of the gunfire, they turned and stampeded over their keepers and some of the remaining Spanish troops. The battle was a rout: the Spanish lost between 400 and 500 men, against 15 privateers killed.

Morgan attacking Panama, 1671

Panama's governor had sworn to burn down the city if his troops lost to the privateers, and he had placed barrels of gunpowder around the largely wooden buildings. These were detonated by the captain of artillery after Morgan's victory; the resultant fires lasted until the following day.[n 13] Only a few stone buildings remained standing afterwards. Much of Panama's wealth was destroyed in the conflagration, although some had been removed by ships, before the privateers arrived. The privateers spent three weeks in Panama and plundered what they could from the ruins. Morgan's second-in-command, Captain Edward Collier, supervised the torture of some of the city's residents; Morgan's fleet surgeon, Richard Browne, later wrote that at Panama, Morgan "was noble enough to the vanquished enemy".

The value of treasure Morgan collected during his expedition is disputed. Talty writes that the figures range from 140,000 to 400,000 pesos, and that owing to the large army Morgan assembled, the prize-per-man was relatively low, causing discontent. There were accusations, particularly in Exquemelin's memoirs, that Morgan left with the majority of the plunder. He arrived back in Port Royal on 12 March to a positive welcome from the town's inhabitants. The following month he made his official report to the governing Council of Jamaica, and received their formal thanks and congratulations.

Arrest and release; knighthood and governorship (1672–1675)[edit]

Charles II, who ordered Morgan's arrest, but later knighted him

During Morgan's absence from Jamaica, news reached the island that England and Spain had signed the Treaty of Madrid.[n 14] The pact aimed to establish peace in the Caribbean between the two countries; it included an agreement to revoke all letters of marque and similar commissions. The historian Violet Barbour considers it probable that one of the Spanish conditions was the removal of Modyford from the Governorship. Modyford was arrested and sent to England by Sir Thomas Lynch, his recent replacement.

The destruction of Panama so soon after the signing of the treaty led to what Allen describes as "a crisis in international affairs" between England and Spain. The English government heard rumours from their ambassadors in Europe that the Spanish were considering war. In an attempt to appease them, Charles II and his Secretary of State, the Earl of Arlington, ordered Morgan's arrest. In April 1672 the privateer admiral was returned to London where, Barbour writes, he was "handsomely lionized ... as the hero on whom Drake's mantle had fallen". Although some sources state that Morgan was also incarcerated in the Tower of London,[n 15] Pope writes that Tower records make no mention of his presence there.

Morgan probably remained at liberty throughout his time in London, and the political mood changed in his favour. Arlington asked him to write a memorandum for the King on how to improve Jamaica's defences. Although there was no court case – Morgan was never charged with an offence – he gave informal evidence to the Lords of Trade and Plantations and proved he had no knowledge of the Treaty of Madrid prior to his attack on Panama. Unhappy with Lynch's conduct in Jamaica, the King and his advisers decided in January 1674 to replace him with John Vaughan, 3rd Earl of Carbery. Morgan would act as his deputy. Charles appointed Morgan a Knight Bachelor in November 1674, and two months later, Morgan and Carbery left for Jamaica. They were accompanied by Modyford, released from the Tower of London without charge and made the Chief Justice of Jamaica. They travelled on board the Jamaica Merchant, which held cannon and shot meant to boost Port Royal's defences. The ship foundered on the rocks of Île-à-Vache and Morgan and the crew were temporarily stranded on the island until picked up by a passing merchant ship.

In Jamaican politics (1675–1688)[edit]

John Vaughan, 3rd Earl of Carbery

On his arrival in Jamaica, the 12-man Assembly of Jamaica voted Morgan an annual salary of £600 "for his good services to the country"; the move angered Carbery, who did not get on with Morgan. Carbery later complained of his deputy that he was "every day more convinced of ... [Morgan's] imprudence and unfitness to have anything to do with civil government". Carbery also wrote to the Secretary of State to bemoan Morgan's "drinking and gaming at the taverns" of Port Royal.

Although Morgan had been ordered to eradicate piracy from Jamaican waters, he continued his friendly relations with many privateer captains, and invested in some of their ships. Zahedieh estimates that there were 1,200 privateers operating in the Caribbean at the time, and Port Royal was their preferred destination. These had a welcome in the city if Morgan received the dues owed to him. As Morgan was no longer able to issue letters of marque to privateer captains, his brother-in-law, Robert Byndloss, directed them to the French governor of Tortuga to have a letter issued; Byndloss and Morgan received a commission for each one signed.

In July 1676 Carbery called for a hearing against Morgan in front of the Assembly of Jamaica, accusing him of collaborating with the French to attack Spanish interests. Morgan admitted he had met the French officials, but indicated that this was diplomatic relations, rather than anything duplicitous. In the summer of 1677 the Lords of Trade said they had yet to come to a decision on the matter and in early 1678 the king and the Privy Council recalled Carbery from Jamaica, leaving Morgan as governor for three months. In July 1678 Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle was appointed governor.

By the late 1670s France became an increasing threat in the Caribbean, and Morgan took control of the defence of Port Royal. He declared martial law in 1678 and 1680 – both during his periods as temporary governor of the island – because of the threat of invasion, re-built the fortifications surrounding the town, and increased the number of cannon from 60 to more than 100 in the five years up to 1680.

As Morgan and his allies on the Assembly of Jamaica continued to deal with privateers and pirates, criticism of their action in London was fomented by two former governors of Jamaica, Carbery and Lynch. After Lynch paid £50,000 to Charles II, Morgan's commissions as lieutenant-governor and lieutenant-general were revoked and Lynch was appointed as the island's governor; Morgan still retained his position on the Assembly of Jamaica. Morgan had been a heavy drinker for several years;[n 16] he received the news of the revocation of his positions badly and increased his intake of alcohol to the point where his health began to suffer. Lynch removed Morgan's supporters from the Assembly of Jamaica by 1683, and in October that year he removed Morgan and his brother-in-law, leaving the assembly packed with men loyal to him. In 1684 Lynch died, and was temporarily replaced as governor by his friend, the lieutenant-general, Hender Molesworth.

In 1684 an account of Morgan's exploits was published by Exquemelin, in a Dutch volume entitled De Americaensche Zee-Roovers (trans: About the Buccaneers of America). Morgan took steps to discredit the book and successfully brought a libel suit against the book's publishers William Crooke and Thomas Malthus. In his affidavit he stated that he had "against evil deeds, piracies and robberies the greatest abhorrence and distrust", and that "for the kind of men called buccaneers", he "always had and still has hatred". The court found in his favour and the book was retracted; damages of £200 were paid to him.

In December 1687 Lynch's permanent replacement arrived in Port George, Morgan's friend from his time in London, Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle. He dismissed Molesworth and gave Morgan an unofficial role as advisor. In July 1688 Albemarle persuaded the king to allow Morgan to regain a position on the Assembly, but the former privateer was too ill to attend.Hans Sloane, Albemarle's private physician, inspected Morgan and diagnosed dropsy; he also saw Morgan was drinking to excess and ordered him to reduce his alcohol intake, a directive which Morgan ignored. Sloane described his patient as

lean, sallow-coloured, his eyes a little yellowish and belly jutting out or prominent ... He complained to me of want of appetite for victuals, he had a kicking ... to vomit every morning and generally a small looseness attending him, and withal is much given to drinking and sitting up late, which I supposed had been the cause of his present indisposition.

Morgan the slave owner[edit]

In the 1670s and 1680s, in his capacity as an owner of three large slave plantations, Morgan led three campaigns against the Jamaican Maroons of Juan de Serras. Morgan achieved some success against the Maroons, who withdrew further into the Blue Mountains, where they were able to stay out of the reach of Morgan and his forces. However, Morgan failed in his attempts to either capture de Serras or to subdue his community of runaway slaves.[123]

By the time Morgan died, he owned three plantations and large numbers of African slaves. He left most of his estate to his wife for the rest of her life. On her death, most of his land and slaves passed to his nephew Charles, second son of Robert Byndloss, who served as Chief Justice of Jamaica in 1681. Morgan also left a parcel of land in the now-defunct parish of St George to another Robert Byndloss (born c. 1673) the eldest son of his brother-in-law Robert Byndloss.[124]

Morgan also left some land in Saint Mary Parish, Jamaica to his friend, Roger Elletson, who was the ancestor of a future governor of Jamaica with the same name.[125]

Morgan's will was probated in 1689, and at his death he owned 131 African slaves on his estates, of which 64 were male and 67 female. About 33 of these slaves were listed as boys, girls or children. The slaves were valued at £1,923.[126]

Death and subsequent events[edit]

Morgan died on 25 August 1688; Albemarle ordered a state funeral, and laid Morgan's body at King's House for the public to pay respects. An amnesty was declared so that pirates and privateers could pay their respects without fear of arrest. He was buried at Palisadoes cemetery, Port Royal, followed by a 22-gun salute from the ships moored in the harbour. Morgan was a wealthy man when he died. His personal wealth was valued at £5,263.

His will initially left his plantations and slaves to his wife, Mary Elizabeth, but because they were childless, on her death his estate was to pass to his nephews, the children of his brother-in-law Byndloss. The burial of Lady Morgan was recorded in Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica on 3 March 1696.[129][130]

In his will, signed 17 June 1688, he left his Jamaican property to his godsons Charles Byndloss and Henry Archbold, on condition they adopted the surname of Morgan. These were the children of his two cousins Anna Petronilla Byndloss and Johanna Archbold. To his sister Catherine Loyd he awarded £60 per annum from his estate "paid into the hands of my ever honest cozen [sic] Thomas Morgan of Tredegar".

On 7 June 1692 an earthquake struck Port Royal. About two-thirds of the town, amounting to 33 acres (13 ha), sank into Kingston harbour immediately after the main shock. Palisadoes cemetery, including Morgan's grave, was one of the parts of the city to fall into the sea; his body has never been subsequently located.

Legacy[edit]

See also: Captain Morgan in popular culture

Rogoziński observes that Morgan is probably the "best-known pirate" because of Exquemelin's book, although, Cordingly writes that Exquemelin bore a grudge over what he saw was Morgan's theft of the bounty from Panama. His experience explains "why he painted such a black picture of Morgan and portrayed him as a cruel and unscrupulous villain", which subsequently affected historians' view of Morgan. Allen observes that, partly because of Exquemelin, Morgan has not been well-served by historians. He cites the examples of the historians whose biographies were so flawed they wrote that Morgan had died in either London, prison or the Tower of London. These included Charles Leslie, A New History of Jamaica (1739), Alan Gardner, History of Jamaica (1873), Hubert Bancroft, History of Central America (1883) and Howard Pyle's work, Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates (compiled in 1921).

Exquemelin wrote that Morgan's men undertook widespread torture in several of the towns they captured. According to Stephen Snelders, in his history of piracy, the Spanish reports of Morgan's raids do not refer to torture being practiced on the residents of Porto Bello or Gibraltar – although there are reliable reports that it was carried out in Panama. The historian Patrick Pringle observes that while torture seems cruel and ruthless to contemporary eyes, it was an accepted part of judicial interrogation in many European countries at the time.[n 17] Morgan always fought with a commission from the governor of Jamaica. In doing so, he was acting as a reserve naval force for the English government in the defence of Jamaica. As the Spanish did not recognise privateering as a legal activity, even if a captain carried letters of marque, they considered Morgan to be a pirate, something he firmly rejected.

Rogoziński observes that Morgan does not appear in later fictional works as much as other pirates because of his "ambiguous mixture of charismatic leadership and selfish treachery", although his name and persona have featured in literature, including Rafael Sabatini's 1922 novel Captain Blood and John Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold (1929), both of which are based in large part on Morgan's career. Morgan and stories of a hidden haul of treasure also feature to a lesser extent in other works, including Ian Fleming's 1954 novel Live and Let Die and John Masefield's 1920 poem "Captain Stratton's Fancy".[n 18] Screen renditions of his life include Captain Blood (1935), The Black Swan (1942),[n 19]Blackbeard the Pirate (1952), Morgan, the Pirate (1961), Pirates of Tortuga (1961) and The Black Corsair (1976). Morgan has also been featured in several video games, including Sid Meier's Pirates! and Age of Pirates 2: City of Abandoned Ships.

In 1944 the Seagram Company started manufacturing the Captain Morgan brand of rum, named after the privateer and up until the 1990s the bottle neck had an illustration of a crest with the Welsh word 'UNDEB' for 'union' or 'unity' underneath, reflecting Henry Morgan's origin. This was later dropped in 2001 with the sale of the Captain Morgan brand to Diageo, the multinational drinks company based in London. The name of Morgan has been attached to local sites in the Caribbean, such as Morgan's Bridge, Morgan's Pass and Morgan's Valley in Clarendon, Morgan's Harbour Hotel and Beach Club in Kingston, the Hotel Henry Morgan, located in Roatán, Honduras, the Port Morgan resort located in Haiti and Captain Morgan's Retreat and Vacation Club on Ambergris Caye, Belize.

The economist Peter Leeson believes that pirates and privateers were generally shrewd businessmen, far removed from the modern, romanticised view of them as murderous tyrants. The anthropologist Anne M. Galvin and the historian Kris Lane separately see Morgan as obtaining wealth to become a member of the landed gentry; Galvin wrote that Morgan showed "social mobility through self-interested acts of outlawry, political wiles, and business acumen". Glenn Blalock, writing for the American National Biography, claims that Morgan was seen as a hero to many Jamaicans and British both for his exploits as a buccaneer and for ensuring Jamaica remained a key part of the British Empire. However, many Jamaicans see Morgan as a "criminal pirate" who sought to maintain the system of slavery.[160][161]

Thomas describes Morgan as

a man of courage, determination, bravery, and ... charisma. He was a planner, a brilliant military strategist and intensely loyal to the king, to England and to Jamaica. ... But unlike so many of the Brethren, he was flexible and adaptable, able to see that the future for Jamaica lay not in plunder or pillage but in peaceful trade. ... He was also an adept politician and held office longer than any of the governors of his time.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ abThe administration of Monmouthshire at the time of Morgan's birth was complex; the Encyclopaedia Britannica state that for 400 years, "Monmouthshire was sometimes considered administratively a part of England and sometimes a part of Wales". Since the early 20th century it has been administered as a Welsh county. A possible birthplace is Llanrumney, which is now in the city of Cardiff but was historically in Monmouthshire.
  2. ^Information on the year of Morgan's birth is unreliable; in a deposition sworn in November 1671 he gave his age as 36.
  3. ^The sources that show Robert as Henry's father include:
    • Zahedieh, Nuala (2004). "Morgan, Sir Henry (c.1635–1688)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
    • Blalock, Glenn (2000). "Morgan, Sir Henry". American National Biography.
    • Pope, Dudley (1978). The Buccaneer King: The Biography of the Notorious Sir Henry Morgan 1635–1688.
    • Breverton, Terry (2005). Admiral Sir Henry Morgan: The Greatest Buccaneer of them all.
  4. ^According to the anthropologists Shannon Lee Dawdy and Joe Bonni, pirates are defined as "bandits, or sailors who seize property and/or people by force"; privateers are defined as those "who operate with a legal license from a state government to attack enemy ships and ports during wartime, keeping a contracted share of seized goods". Dawdy and Bonni define buccaneers as "originally castaway colonists (usually French or English) on Hispanio (from French) who survived by hunting or raising livestock", although the historian Jon Latimer observes that the terms pirate and buccaneer have been interchangeable in English since the 17th century.
  5. ^Although England and Spain were not at war (the six-year Anglo-Spanish War had ended in 1660) Charles II was concerned about the Spanish attitude to the fledgling English territories in the Caribbean. He instructed the governor of Jamaica, Lord Windsor, to put military pressure on the Spaniards in order to retain the English presence in the region.
  6. ^The hostilities led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667).
  7. ^Mansvelt instead selected the more lucrative city of Cartago, the capital of Costa Rica, as the target for his attack.
  8. ^Rogoziński points out that the erroneous report of Morgan's presence on Mansvelt's expedition was from Alexandre Exquemelin's history The Buccaneers of America, although there is no record of Morgan's being part of Mansvelt's group.
  9. ^The full name of the peso was the peso de ocho reales, also known as piece of eight or the Spanish dollar, the main currency used by the Spanish; English merchants and government used pounds, shillings and pence. In the late 17th century the peso was worth between five and six shillings.
  10. ^Some sources, including Breverton and Allen, state that there were only ten survivors from a crew of 350; Pope states that more than 250 were killed.
  11. ^For his failure in his action, Espinosa was arrested and sent back to Spain.
  12. ^The size of Morgan's force differs between sources. Breverton states that Morgan commanded a fleet of 36 English and French ships carrying more than 1,800 privateers; Pope gives the figures of 36 ships and 1,846 men; Thomas writes that it was 37 ships with "2,000 fighting men, beside mariners and boys"; while Zahedieh and Cordingly separately put the figures at 38 ships with 2,000 men.
  13. ^The Spanish later built what is now Panama City six miles down the coast in a more easily defendable position.
  14. ^The treaty was signed on 8 July 1670 and was published in the Caribbean in either May or July 1671.
  15. ^Zahedieh in the Dictionary of National Biography is one such writer.
  16. ^Thomas opines that while Morgan drank to excess, "the drinking was not that of a sad man or a man that drank to forget; it was because he was a larger than life character who spent many of his evenings smoking and drinking, exchanging stories of wild adventures with his peers".
  17. ^Pringle identifies legal use of judicial torture in Scotland until 1708, in France until 1789 and the Spanish – as part of the Inquisition until the 1830s.
  18. ^"Captain Stratton's Fancy" was later set to music by Peter Warlock.
  19. ^Captain Blood and The Black Swan were adapted from the respective Sabatini novels of the same name.

References[edit]

  1. ^Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 23, 32-3.
  2. ^Legacies of British Slave-ownership, University College London https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146662323 Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  3. ^Legacies of British Slave-ownership, University College London https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146662323 Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  4. ^Legacies of British Slave-ownership, University College London https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146662323 Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  5. ^Legacies of British Slave-ownership, University College London https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146662323 Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  6. ^Rebecca Tortello, "Henry Morgan: the pirate king", Daily Gleanerhttp://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0038.htm Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  7. ^Michael Burke, "Similarities with the first Christmas", Jamaica Observer, 21 December 2017 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/opinion/similarities-with-the-first-christmas_120511?profile=&template=PrinterVersion Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  8. ^Michael Burke, "Columbus, education, and Jamaica today", Jamaica Observer, 3 May 2018 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/opinion/columbus-education-and-jamaica-today_132150?profile=1096 Retrieved 6 September 2020.

Sources[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Allen, H. R. (1976). Buccaneer: Admiral Sir Henry Morgan. London: Arthur Baker. ISBN .
  • Breverton, Terry (2005). Admiral Sir Henry Morgan: The Greatest Buccaneer of them all. Pencader, Carmarthenshire: Glyndŵr Publishing. ISBN .
  • Cordingly, David (2006) [1996]. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates. London: Random House. ISBN .
  • Cornell, Jimmy (2014). World Cruising Routes: 1000 Sailing Routes in All Oceans of the World. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN .
  • Cundall, Frank (1936). The Governors of Jamaica in the Seventeenth Century. London: The West India Committee. OCLC 3262925.
  • Curtis, Wayne (2007). And a Bottle of Rum: A History of the New World in Ten Cocktails. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN .
  • Earle, Peter (2007). The Sack of Panamá: Captain Morgan and the Battle for the Caribbean. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN .
  • Exquemelin, John (2010) [1684]. The Buccaneers of America: A True Account of the Most Remarkable Assaults Committed of Late Years Upon the Coasts of the West Indies by the Buccaneers of Jamaica and Tortuga. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. ISBN .
  • Francis, John Michael (2006). Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN .
  • Gosse, Phillip (2007) [1932]. The History of Piracy. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN .
  • Hold, Trevor (2005). Parry to Finzi: Twenty English Song-composers. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN .
  • Latimer, Jon (2009). Buccaneers of the Caribbean: How Piracy Forged an Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN .
  • Little, Benerson (2007). The Buccaneer's Realm: Pirate Life on the Spanish Main, 1674–1688. Washington, DC: Potomac Books. ISBN .
  • Lycett, Andrew (1996). Ian Fleming. London: Phoenix. ISBN .
  • McGilligan, Patrick (1986). Backstory: Interviews with Screenwriters of Hollywood's Golden Age. Oakland, CA: University of California Press. ISBN .
  • Paxman, Jeremy (2011). Empire. London: Viking. ISBN .
  • Pope, Dudley (1978) [1977 (in the UK, as Harry Morgan's Way)]. The Buccaneer King: The Biography of the Notorious Sir Henry Morgan 1635–1688. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. ISBN .
  • Pringle, Patrick (2001) [1953]. Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy (Kindle ed.). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN .
  • Rogoziński, Jan (1995). Pirates!: Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend: An A-Z Encyclopedia. New York: Facts on File. ISBN .
  • Snelders, Stephen (2005). The Devil's Anarchy: The Sea Robberies of the Most Famous Pirate Claes G. Compaen, and The Very Remarkable Travels of Jan Erasmus Reyning, Buccaneer. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia. ISBN .
  • Talty, Stephan (2007). Empire of Blue Water: Henry Morgan and the Pirates Who Ruled the Caribbean Waves. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN .
  • Thomas, Graham (2014). The Buccaneer King: the Story of Captain Henry Morgan (Kindle ed.). Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Maritime. ISBN .

Online resources[edit]

  • "The Black Swan". American Film Institute. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  • Blalock, Glenn (2000). "Morgan, Sir Henry". American National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 October 2016.(subscription required)
  • Burnard, Trevor (2004). "Lynch, Sir Thomas (d. 1684)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17260. Retrieved 10 November 2016. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • "Captain Blood". American Film Institute. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  • "Captain Morgan's Retreat". Islands Magazine: 94. November 2005.
  • "Diageo Company History". Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
  • Firaxis (15 November 2004). "Pirates of Pirates!". IGN. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  • Folliott, Kathryn (30 October 2014). "Orlando tailors promotion to Canadians Picks of the Week". The Toronto Star. p. T4.
  • "Historic Earthquakes: Jamaica: 1692 June 07 UTC". U.S. Geological Survey. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  • Knighton, C. S. (2008). "Myngs, Sir Christopher (bap. 1625, d. 1666)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19708. Retrieved 11 January 2017. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Matson, John (26 November 2008). "What Would Blackbeard Do? Why Piracy Pays". Scientific American. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  • "Monmouthshire". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  • Tortello, Rebecca. "The People Who Came". Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  • Williams, David (1959). "Morgan, Henry (1635? – 1688), Buccaneer". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  • Zahedieh, Nuala (2004a). "Morgan, Sir Henry (c.1635–1688)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19224. Retrieved 10 October 2016. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Zahedieh, Nuala (2004b). "Modyford, Sir Thomas, First Baronet (c.1620–1679)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18871. Retrieved 13 October 2016. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Journals and magazines[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgan


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