Model s tesla

Model s tesla DEFAULT

Range (est.)

Range (est.)

0-100 km/h*

0-100 km/h*

Top Speed†

Top Speed†

Peak Power

Peak Power

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Specs displayed are US values

Specs displayed are US values

17” Cinematic Display

With 2200x1300 resolution, ultra bright, true colors and exceptional responsiveness, the new center display is the best screen to watch anywhere.

Focus on Driving

The ultimate focus on driving: no stalks, no shifting. Model S is the best car to drive, and the best car to be driven in.

Perfect Environment

Clean, powerful yet invisible cabin conditioning. Tri-zone temperature controls, ventilated front seats and HEPA filtration come standard.

Redesigned Second Row

Seating for three adults, with extra legroom, headroom and a stowable armrest with integrated storage and wireless charging.

Game from Anywhere

Up to 10 teraflops of processing power enables in-car gaming on-par with today’s newest consoles. Wireless controller compatibility lets you game from any seat.

Stay Connected

Multi-device Bluetooth, wireless and USB-C charging for every passenger, with enough power to fast-charge your tablets and laptop.

Your Best Audio System

A 22-speaker, 960-watt audio system with active noise canceling offers the best listening experience at home or on the road.

Real Storage

With front and rear trunks and fold-flat seats, Model S is a luxury car where you can fit your bike without taking the wheel off, and your luggage too.

Peak power

Peak Power

@250 km/h 1/4 mile

@250 km/h 1/4 mile

0-100 km/h*

0-100 km/h*

With the longest range and quickest acceleration of any electric vehicle in production, Model S Plaid is the highest performing sedan ever built. Both Long Range and Plaid powertrains, with updated battery architecture, are capable of back-to-back, consistent 1/4 mile runs.

With the longest range and quickest acceleration of any electric vehicle in production, Model S Plaid is the highest performing sedan ever built. Both Long Range and Plaid powertrains, with updated battery architecture, are capable of back-to-back, consistent 1/4 mile runs.

Order Now

Performance-focused chassis

Performance-Focused Chassis

0.208

https://tesla-cdn.thron.com/delivery/public/image/tesla/a5537817-04cc-4bb3-a4fc-6b99eb6f56dc/bvlatuR/std/225x126/Cd-V6
https://tesla-cdn.thron.com/delivery/public/image/tesla/a5537817-04cc-4bb3-a4fc-6b99eb6f56dc/bvlatuR/std/225x126/Cd-V6

Lowest-drag car on Earth

Lowest-Drag Car on Earth

Refined exterior styling

Refined Exterior Styling

With the lowest drag coefficient on Earth and unmatched efficiency, Model S is built for speed and range. Together with a wider body and chassis, these elements help you go down the straight or around corners quicker than ever.

With the lowest drag coefficient on Earth and unmatched efficiency, Model S is built for speed and range. Together with a wider body and chassis, these elements help you go down the straight or around corners quicker than ever.

Order Now

Responsive Performance

Staggered, performance-focused wheels and tires keep the car planted and transfer even more power down to the road.

Optimized Aerodynamics

Attention to detail on all exterior surfaces makes Model S the most aerodynamic production car on Earth.

Refined Styling

Exterior design combines an iconic look with elegant proportions.

Go anywhere with up to 652 km of estimated range on a single charge

Range
(est.)

Supercharge up to 322 km in 15 minutes

Supercharge up to 322 km in 15 minutes

Superchargers placed along popular routes

Global
Superchargers

Travel farther on a single charge than any other electric vehicle—and keep going with access to 25,000+ Superchargers globally. By combining up to 652 km of estimated range with Tesla fast charging technology, you’ll spend less time charging and even more time on the road.

Travel farther on a single charge than any other electric vehicle—and keep going with access to 25,000+ Superchargers globally. By combining up to 652 km of estimated range with Tesla fast charging technology, you’ll spend less time charging and even more time on the road.

Order Now

  • Front-Impact Protection
  • Side-Impact Protection
  • Very Low Rollover Risk
Sours: https://www.tesla.com/en_eu/models

Overview

Without it we wouldn't have the growing selection of electric vehicles we have today, yet the 2022 Tesla Model S remains one of the most compelling and desirable options in that growing market segment. With up to 412-miles of estimated driving range—depending upon model—the S can easily be used for long drives, and the 1020-hp Plaid version can deliver supercar acceleration while seating four adults. The Model S is also practical, with a large rear cargo area and a secondary front-trunk for extra space. New entrants in the luxury EV sedan category includes the Porsche Taycan and the Audi e-tron GT, both of which challenge the Model S in terms of performance and comfort, but its superior range and available semi-autonomous driving technology continue to draw consumers to this Tesla.

What's New for 2022?

Last year, the Model S received a styling refresh for the exterior and interior that resulted in the addition of a unique yoke-style steering wheel and a beastly 1020-hp Plaid performance model. For 2022, we are expecting few changes, but Tesla has announced a large price increase for the base Long Range trim.

Pricing and Which One to Buy

We'd stick with the base Long Range model, which carries an estimated range of 412 miles per charge. The 1020-hp Plaid model sounds compelling, but its six-figure asking price represents diminishing value—unless you must have a car with the performance of a Top Fuel dragster.

Engine, Transmission, and Performance

With an electric motor dedicated to each of the front and rear axles, the Model S offers full-time all-wheel drive no matter which version you choose. Acceleration of the various models ranges from outstanding to ferocious. We haven't tested the Model S Long Range or Plaid yet, but our 2020 Model S test vehicle delivered a blistering 2.4-second zero-to-60-mph time and proved endlessly entertainment thanks to its immediate power delivery. The Plaid model boasts a third electric motor, which boosts combined output to 1020 horsepower. Tesla hasn't released that beast into the wild yet but claims it's capable of a zero-to-60-mph time of just 2.0 seconds. That would make it the quickest car to 60 mph we've ever tested, so we'll obviously have to take it to the track to see if its performance matches the hype. The standard Model S has proven itself an agile sports sedan with well-controlled body motions and direct steering. Two different settings allow drivers to choose heavy or light steering effort, but neither of them enable more feedback from the road. Ride comfort is good, the handling is crisp, and it's confident and almost tranquil on the highway.

Tesla

Range, Charging, and Battery Life

Under the Tesla's floor lies a battery pack that yields a low center of gravity and evenly distributed weight from front to rear. Driving range and acceleration performance varies from model to model, with the Long Range version's battery providing up to a 412-mile range while the Plaid model offers up to 390. Upstart Lucid Motors says its Air luxury sedan is rated for up to 517 miles per charge.

Fuel Economy and Real-World MPG

While EVs such as the Chevy Bolt and Polestar 2 deliver serviceable driving range the Model S remains an impressive alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles when it comes to long-distance usability. The base Long Range model receives the highest MPGe ratings at 121 city and 112 highway. In our real-world, 75-mph highway fuel economy test, a 2020 Model S we tested posted a 222-mile highway range number against its 326-mile EPA estimated driving range. For more information about the Model S's fuel economy, visit the EPA's website.

Interior, Comfort, and Cargo

With Model S prices starting at over $90,000, buyers would be reasonable to expect a certain amount of luxury inside the car. The cabin's atmosphere is nice enough, but it's not nearly as plush as those of our favorites such as the Mercedes-Benz E-class and the Volvo S90. The Model S's sloped roofline cleverly hides a rear liftgate that opens up to reveal a huge 26-cubic-foot trunk. We managed to stash eight of our carry-on-size cases without folding down the rear seats. Paltry small-item cubby stowage throughout the interior—especially in the back seat—is offset by a large underfloor bin in the rear cargo area.

Tesla

Infotainment and Connectivity

Fans of modern minimalism will adore the Model S's cabin, which comes standard with a giant infotainment screen that controls almost all of the vehicle's functions. Technophiles will be in heaven, but we're not completely sold. The screen's positioning on the dashboard will require some drivers to lean forward in their seat to reach certain icons, especially those near the top right of the display. Unlike the cheaper Model 3, the Model S provides a secondary display for the gauge cluster and a small touchpad in the rear seat as well.

Safety and Driver-Assistance Features

Although the Model S has sparked a nationwide conversation about the safety of partially autonomous vehicles and has been reported to catch fire after certain types of high-speed impacts, its safety credibility is buoyed by decent crash-test results from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the knowledge that car fires aren't uncommon, either in electric- or gasoline-powered vehicles. For more information about the Model S's crash-test results, visit the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) websites. Key safety features include:

  • Standard automated emergency braking
  • Standard lane-departure warning
  • Available adaptive cruise control with semi-autonomous driving mode

Warranty and Maintenance Coverage

Tesla offers a comprehensive warranty package to protect the Model S's powertrain and hybrid components but lacks the lengthy bumper-to-bumper coverage and complimentary scheduled maintenance packages of the Jaguar I-Pace.

  • Limited warranty covers four years or 50,000 miles
  • Powertrain warranty covers eight years and unlimited miles
  • No complimentary scheduled maintenance

Specifications

Specifications

2020 Tesla Model S Performance

VEHICLE TYPE
front- and mid-motor, all-wheel-drive, 5-passenger, 4-door hatchback

PRICE AS TESTED
$108,690 (base price: $96,190)

MOTORS
front: permanent-magnet synchronous AC, 275 hp, 310 lb-ft; rear: induction AC, 503 hp, 531 lb-ft; 98.0-kWh lithium-ion battery pack

TRANSMISSION
single-speed direct drive

CHASSIS
Suspension (F/R): multilink/multilink
Brakes (F/R): 14.0-in vented disc/14.4-in vented disc
Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport 4S, F: 245/35R-21 96Y TO R: 265/35R-21 101Y TO

DIMENSIONS
Wheelbase: 116.5 in
Length: 195.7 in
Width: 77.3 in
Height: 56.9 in
Passenger volume: 95 ft3
Cargo volume: 26 ft3
Curb weight: 4998 lb

C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 2.4 sec
100 mph: 6.1 sec
130 mph: 11.4 sec
150 mph: 19.3 sec
1/4 mile: 10.6 sec @ 126 mph
Top speed (mfr's claim): 163 mph
Standing-start accel times omit 1-ft rollout of 0.3 sec.

EPA FUEL ECONOMY
Combined/city/highway: 97/98/96 MPGe
Range: 326 miles

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More Features and Specs

Sours: https://www.caranddriver.com/tesla/model-s
  1. Fruit 3 tier stand
  2. Copart tower
  3. Anti polymer antibodies
  4. Sweat gland image
  5. Sad face gif

Range (EPA est.)

Range (EPA est.)

0-60 mph*

0-60 mph*

Top Speed†

Top Speed†

Peak Power

Peak Power

Order Now

17” Cinematic Display

With 2200x1300 resolution, ultra bright, true colors and exceptional responsiveness, the new center display is the best screen to watch anywhere.

Focus on Driving

The ultimate focus on driving: no stalks, no shifting. Model S is the best car to drive, and the best car to be driven in.

Perfect Environment

Clean, powerful yet invisible cabin conditioning. Tri-zone temperature controls, ventilated front seats and HEPA filtration come standard.

Redesigned Second Row

Seating for three adults, with extra legroom, headroom and a stowable armrest with integrated storage and wireless charging.

Game from Anywhere

Up to 10 teraflops of processing power enables in-car gaming on-par with today’s newest consoles. Wireless controller compatibility lets you game from any seat.

Stay Connected

Multi-device Bluetooth, wireless and USB-C charging for every passenger, with enough power to fast-charge your tablets and laptop.

Your Best Audio System

A 22-speaker, 960-watt audio system with active noise canceling offers the best listening experience at home or on the road.

Real Storage

With front and rear trunks and fold-flat seats, Model S is a luxury car where you can fit your bike without taking the wheel off, and your luggage too.

Peak power

Peak Power

@155 mph 1/4 mile

@155 mph 1/4 mile

0-60 mph*

0-60 mph*

With the longest range and quickest acceleration of any electric vehicle in production, Model S Plaid is the highest performing sedan ever built. Both Long Range and Plaid powertrains, with updated battery architecture, are capable of back-to-back, consistent 1/4 mile runs.

With the longest range and quickest acceleration of any electric vehicle in production, Model S Plaid is the highest performing sedan ever built. Both Long Range and Plaid powertrains, with updated battery architecture, are capable of back-to-back, consistent 1/4 mile runs.

Order Now

Performance-focused chassis

Performance-Focused Chassis

0.208

https://tesla-cdn.thron.com/delivery/public/image/tesla/a5537817-04cc-4bb3-a4fc-6b99eb6f56dc/bvlatuR/std/225x126/Cd-V6
https://tesla-cdn.thron.com/delivery/public/image/tesla/a5537817-04cc-4bb3-a4fc-6b99eb6f56dc/bvlatuR/std/225x126/Cd-V6

Lowest-drag car on Earth

Lowest-Drag Car on Earth

Refined exterior styling

Refined Exterior Styling

With the lowest drag coefficient on Earth and unmatched efficiency, Model S is built for speed and range. Together with a wider body and chassis, these elements help you go down the straight or around corners quicker than ever.

With the lowest drag coefficient on Earth and unmatched efficiency, Model S is built for speed and range. Together with a wider body and chassis, these elements help you go down the straight or around corners quicker than ever.

Order Now

Responsive Performance

Staggered, performance-focused wheels and tires keep the car planted and transfer even more power down to the road.

Optimized Aerodynamics

Attention to detail on all exterior surfaces makes Model S the most aerodynamic production car on Earth.

Refined Styling

Exterior design combines an iconic look with elegant proportions.

Go anywhere with up to 405 miles of estimated range on a single charge

Range
(est.)

Supercharge up to 200 miles in 15 minutes

Supercharge up to 200 miles in 15 minutes

Superchargers placed along popular routes

Global
Superchargers

Travel farther on a single charge than any other electric vehicle—and keep going with access to 25,000+ Superchargers globally. By combining up to 405 miles of estimated range with Tesla fast charging technology, you’ll spend less time charging and even more time on the road.

Travel farther on a single charge than any other electric vehicle—and keep going with access to 25,000+ Superchargers globally. By combining up to 405 miles of estimated range with Tesla fast charging technology, you’ll spend less time charging and even more time on the road.

Order Now

  • Front-Impact Protection
  • Side-Impact Protection
  • Very Low Rollover Risk

Model S is built from the ground up as an electric vehicle, with a high-strength architecture and floor-mounted battery pack for incredible occupant protection and low rollover risk. Every Model S includes Tesla’s latest active safety features, such as Automatic Emergency Braking, at no extra cost.

Model S is built from the ground up as an electric vehicle, with a high-strength architecture and floor-mounted battery pack for incredible occupant protection and low rollover risk. Every Model S includes Tesla’s latest active safety features, such as Automatic Emergency Braking, at no extra cost.

Order Now

Rear, side and forward-facing cameras provide maximum visibility

Degrees
of Visibility

Powerful visual processing at up to 250 meters of range

of Powerful
Visual Processing

12 ultrasonic sensors icon

Ultrasonic
Sensors

12 ultrasonic sensors icon

Detects nearby cars, helps prevent potential collisions and assists with parking

Ultrasonic
Sensors

Autopilot enables your car to steer, accelerate and brake automatically within its lane under your active supervision, assisting with the most burdensome parts of driving. With over-the-air software updates, the latest enhancements are available instantly.

Autopilot enables your car to steer, accelerate and brake automatically within its lane under your active supervision, assisting with the most burdensome parts of driving. With over-the-air software updates, the latest enhancements are available instantly.

Order Now

Sours: https://www.tesla.com/models
2021 Tesla Model S in-depth review – has it had its day? - What Car?

Tesla Model S

Motor vehicle

Tesla Model S
2018 Tesla Model S 75D.jpg
ManufacturerTesla, Inc.
Also calledCode name: WhiteStar[1][2][3]
Production2012–present
Assembly
DesignerFranz von Holzhausen
ClassExecutive car (E)
Body style5-door liftback
Layout
RelatedTesla Model X
Electric motorFront and rear motor combined output up to 615 kW (825 bhp), 1,300 N⋅m (960 lb⋅ft), 3-phase AC induction motor
Transmission1-speed fixed gear ratio (9.734:1 or 9.325:1); direct-drive[4][5]
Battery100 kWhlithium ion
Discontinued: 60, 70, 75, 85 and 90 kWh lithium ion
Electric range
  • 75 kWh (270 MJ)
    249–259 mi (401–417 km) (EPA)
  • 85 kWh (310 MJ)
    253–272 mi (407–438 km) (EPA)
    310 mi (500 km) (NEDC)
  • 90 kWh (320 MJ)
    270–294 mi (435–473 km) (EPA)
  • 100 kWh (360 MJ)
    348–402 mi (560–647 km) (EPA)
Plug-in charging
  • Onboard charger
  • 3ϕ 400 V 16 A[6] (Type 2);[7] 1ϕ 85–300 V 48 A (new front fascia variant)
  • Optional charger: 20 kW from 1ϕ 277 V 72 A
  • Dual charger: 21.1 kW from 1ϕ 264 V 80 A and 22 kW from 3ϕ 400 V 32 A; 19.2 kW from 2ϕ 240 V 80 A[8] (old front fascia variant); 16.5 kW from 3ϕ 400 V 24 A (new front fascia variant)[6]
  • Offboard charger
  • Supercharger at 150–250 kW DC
Wheelbase116.5 in (2,960 mm)
Length195.9 in (4,980 mm)
Width
  • 77.3 in (1,964 mm) (ex. mirrors)
  • 86.2 in (2,189 mm) (inc. mirrors)
Height56.5 in (1,440 mm)
Curb weight4,323–4,960 lb (1,961–2,250 kg)[9][10][11]

"Model S" redirects here. For the fighter aircraft, see Curtiss Model S.

The Tesla Model S is an all-electric five-door liftback produced by Tesla, Inc. It was introduced on June 22, 2012.[12] It received a major refresh in June 2021. Tesla positions the Model S as its flagship.

In 2013, the Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new-car-sales ranking in any country, leading twice in Norway, in September and December 2013[13][14][15][16] and in Denmark in December 2015.[17] Sales passed 250,000 units in September 2018.[18][19][20][21] The Model S was the top-selling plug-in electric car worldwide in 2015 and 2016, although it was later surpassed by the Model 3.[22][23][24]

In an early review of the Model S, Consumer Reports declared, "This car performs better than anything we've ever tested before. Let me repeat that: Not just the best electric car, but the best car. It does just about everything really, really well."[25] In their Owner Satisfaction survey owners have consistently rated Teslas at, or near, the top rankings.[26] In 2019, Motor Trend named the 2013 Tesla Model S the ultimate "Car of the Year" over the magazine's entire 70-year history.[27]

History[edit]

Introduction[edit]

Model S was codenamed WhiteStar before its release. It was officially announced on June 30, 2008.[28][29] The prototype vehicle was displayed on March 26, 2009.[30] The exclusive premier was held at Tesla's Menlo Park store on April 8, 2009.

First production Model S, with owner and Tesla board member Steve Jurvetson

In May 2010 Tesla announced it would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI plant in Fremont, California,[31] which became known as the Tesla Factory.

The first ten customers received their cars at the Fremont factory on June 22, 2012, at the official launch. Production grew from 15–20 cars completed per week in August 2012 to about 1,000 cars per week in 2015.[33]

In 2012, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) range for the base model was 208 mi (335 km)[34] while the longer range model was 265 miles (426 km).[35][36] Musk claimed that the Model S battery offered twice the energy density of the Nissan Leaf's, with more than double the range, increased by a low drag coefficient, motor efficiency and rolling resistance.[37] The original battery was similar to the Panasonic NCR18650B cell that offered an energy density of 265 Wh/kg.[38] Analysts estimated battery costs to be around 21–22% of the car cost.[39] The 60 kWh battery was guaranteed for eight years or 125,000 miles (200,000 km), while the 85 kWh was guaranteed for eight years and unlimited miles.[40][41] In 2012, Tesla began building a network of 480-volt charging stations, called Tesla Superchargers, to facilitate long-distance travel.[42]

The Center Display was powered by a NvidiaTegra 3 3D Visual Computing Module (VCM), while the instrument cluster was driven by a separate Nvidia Tegra 2 VCM.[43][44] The Tegra system on a chip (SoC) integrated eight specialized processors, including a multi-coreARMCPU, a GPU, and dedicated audio, video and image processors.

The Tesla Model S was the 2013 World Green Car of the Year, 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year, Automobile magazine's 2013 Car of the Year, Time Magazine's Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012, and Consumer Reports' top-scoring car in road testing. In 2015, Car and Driver named the Model S the Car of the Century.[45] After not recommending the Model S in 2015 due to poor reliability, one year later, Consumer Reports added the car to its recommended list.[46][47]

All-wheel Drive Update and Subsequent Changes[edit]

On October 9, 2014, Tesla introduced "Dual Drive" all-wheel drive (AWD) versions of the Model S 60, 85, and P85 models, designated by a D at the end of the model number (the P represented performance).[48][49][50] Autopilot arrived in September 2014, supported by cameras, forward looking radar[51][52] and ultrasonic acoustic location sensors that provided a 360-degree view.

Deliveries of the P85D started in December 2014, with the 85D models following in February 2015, and the 70D models in April 2015.[49] On April 8, 2015, Tesla discontinued the Model S 60.[53]

In June 2015, Tesla said that Model S cars had traveled over 1 billion miles (1.6 billion km), the first all-electric car to reach that total.[54][55] (In 2014 the hybrid-electric Chevy Volt had travelled 1 billion miles, but only 629 million were all-electric miles, while Nissan said the all-electric Leaf had accumulated 625 million total miles.[55]) Global Model S sales passed 100,000 units in 2015,[56] and 150,000 in November 2016.[57] The 200,000 milestone was achieved by early in the fourth quarter of 2017.[18]

In July 2015, Tesla announced its goal to make a Model S powertrain that lasted for one million miles.[58] The 2015 update introduced electromechanical brakes.[59]

In 2015, Tesla introduced a 70 kWh battery to replace the existing 60 kWh batteries and base 60 kWh Model S vehicles.[60][61] It introduced a 90 kWh battery as a "range upgrade" and explained that the 6% energy increase was due to "improved cell chemistry"[58] and the introduction of silicon into the cell's graphite anode.[62] The 60 and 60D returned in 2016 with a software-limited, upgradeable 75 kWH battery and the "Bioweapon Defense Mode" air filter.[63]

In April 2016, Tesla removed the black nose cone and added a body colored fascia, commonly referred to as a facelifted Tesla.[64] The front fascia has a similar design as the Model X, adding adaptive LED headlights. A HEPA cabin air filtration system was added. The standard charger increased from 40 to 48 amps, speeding charging at higher-amperage outlets. Two ash wood interior options were added.[65] In August Tesla announced the P100D with the Ludicrous mode option, a 100  kWh battery with 315 miles (507 km) of range,[66][67] weighing 625 kg in a 0.40 m³ volume; a density of 160 Wh/kg.[68]

In April 2017, Tesla ceased offering the 60 kWh software-limited battery option. The lowest-capacity option became the 75 kWh, and at the same time Tesla significantly reduced the software upgrade options for facelifted 60 and 70 models to be upgraded over-the-air to 75 (and rebadged at their next visit to a Tesla service center). In August 2017, Tesla announced that HW2.5 included a secondary processor node to provide more computing power and additional wiring redundancy to improve reliability; it also enabled dashcam and sentry mode capabilities.[69][70] By 2017, in the Consumer Reports Car Reliability Survey, Tesla's position on the list had moved up four spots; the predicted reliability rating for Model S reached "above average" for the first time.[71]

In March 2018 it was announced that Tesla had upgraded the Media Control Unit (MCU) to version 2.[72] MCU 2 improved the performance of the center screen, enabling Tesla Arcade and Tesla Theater.[73] The center display and the instrument cluster were driven by a single multi-core x86 Intel Atom CPU. In May 2018 Tesla released incomplete source code[74] for the Model S on a GitHub repository as part of their software license compliance process in collaboration with the Software Freedom Conservancy.[75][76]

In an engineering refresh in May 2019, range was increased to 370 mi (600 km) and smart air suspension was added.[77] As of 2019, Tesla claimed its drag coefficient had reached Cd=0.23.[78]

In February 2020, Tesla increased the range of the Model S to 390 mi (630 km) of range.[79]

As of March 2020[update], Tesla operated 16,103 superchargers in 1,826 stations worldwide; these include 908 stations in the U.S., 98 in Canada, 16 in Mexico, 520 in Europe, and 398 in the Asia/Pacific region.[80] In August 2020 the range test results were updated by the EPA to 402 miles (647 km), higher than that of any other battery electric car.[81][82][83] Tesla warranties finally specified a 70% battery loss limit.[84][85][86]

On October 15, 2020, the U.S. price of the long-range version was lowered to $69,420.[87][88][89][90]

In early 2021, with the introduction of an entirely new interior, now with landscape orientation of the MCU and more rear seat room, and a lightly modified exterior, Tesla changed the "Performance" and "Long Range" Model S branding in favor of "Plaid" and "Long Range," respectively. On June 10, 2021, the Model S Plaid was released at a delivery event at the factory with nearly 30 new owners taking delivery that evening. At the delivery event references were made to the return of the third-row seating, allowing a total of seven passengers, however, as of September 2021, no such option was listed on Tesla's website. Production ramped very slowly over the following months despite some prospective owners waiting since late-2020 for their cars. The Long Range version was EPA-rated to a new high of 405 miles when equipped with the standard, 19" wheels, making it the longest range EV in the world; the Plaid was listed at 396 miles of range.[91]

Until 2018, the Model S had an optional folding third row with rear-facing seats for two children with a five-point harness

Production[edit]

Main article: Tesla Factory § Tesla Model S manufacturing process

Tesla manufactures the Model S at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. For the European market, Tesla removes the battery pack, the electric motor and parts assembles and ships everything to Europe where it is reassembled at its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the Netherlands.[92][93]

As of 2020, it was in the top 10 for domestic parts content.[94]

Design[edit]

The Model S was styled by a team led by Franz von Holzhausen, who previously worked for Mazda North American Operations,[96] who drew upon the Mercedes BenzCLS 4-Door Coupe.[97] It was designed with an electric powertrain in mind,[98] unlike other electric vehicles where the manufacturer swaps an internal combustion engine with an electric motor.[99][100][101] As a result, the Model S offers features such as a front trunk (a "frunk") in addition to a rear trunk and an enlarged crumple zone.[102]

The Model S exists in several versions, differing in energy capacity (battery size), power (motor size), and equipment. It is classified as a full-size luxury car in the US, or as a "Large Car"[103] (greater than or equal to 120 cu ft or 3.4 m3) or "Luxury Sedan"[104] by the EPA. The Euro Car Segment classification is S-segment (sports car),[105][106] or "Oberklasse" (F-segment) in Germany.[107]

The roof was eventually transitioned to be made entirely of high-strength glass in ~2017, originally as an option but then made standard across the fleet. With this change the Panoramic sunroof was no longer an option. [108][109]

Powertrain[edit]

The Model S powertrain has evolved since its first release, increasing in efficiency, power, and durability. IN 2014 Tesla claimed that the Model S recovered the energy that went into producing it in fewer than 10,000 miles (16,000 km).[110]

The rear axle has a traditional open differential. Models with Dual Drive dual motors also have an open differential on the front axles as well. The front and rear axles have no mechanical linkage – with dual motors, the power distribution among them is controlled electronically.[111] With the introduction of the tri-motor Plaid version in mid-2021, new performance levels were achieved making the Model S Plaid the fastest accelerating production car in the world.

The powertrain provides regenerative braking power of more than 60 kW, which both reduces energy consumption and greatly reduces brake wear.

Battery[edit]

Tesla Model S battery is made of several thousand cylindrical cells (18650)

The battery pack includes thousands of identical 18650 battery cells, depending on the pack size. 18650 cells are cylindrical and are 18 mm in diameter, and 65 mm in height. Cells use a graphite/silicon[62] anode and a nickel-cobalt-aluminum cathode with an aqueous electrolyte and lithium ions as charge carriers.[112] Battery capacity has changed repeatedly as the technology has evolved, ranging from 60-100 kWH. As of 2021, the company preferred to cite vehicle range rather than battery capacity. The batteries are the car's heaviest component. E.g., the 85 kWh battery pack weighed 1,200 lb (540 kg).[113][better source needed] Tesla manufactures some Model S cells internally, and some in partnership with Panasonic.

Cell, group, module, pack[edit]

The P85 pack contained 7,104 lithium-ion batterycells in 16 modules[115] wired in series (14 in the flat section and two stacked on the front).[116] Each module contained 6 groups of 74 cells[117] wired in parallel; the 6 groups were then wired in series within the module.[117][118][119][120]

Lithium-ion batteries operate best at certain temperatures. The motor, controller and battery temperatures are controlled by a liquid cooling/heating circuit,[121] and the battery is uninsulated.[100]Waste heat from the motor heats the battery in cold conditions, and battery performance is reduced until a suitable battery temperature is reached.[122] The battery can be pre-heated by a 6 kW internal heater, either from itself using battery power, or from a charger.[100]

Placement[edit]

In contrast to most earlier battery electric vehicles including the Roadster, the battery pack of the Model S forms the floor of the vehicle between the axles, with several advantages:

Energy consumption[edit]

Under its five-cycle testing protocol, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the 90 kWh version at a combined fuel economy equivalent of 104 MPGe (2.26 L/100 km or 125 mpg‑imp), with an equivalent 102 mpg‑US (2.3 L/100 km; 122 mpg‑imp) in city driving and 107 mpg‑US (2.2 L/100 km; 129 mpg‑imp) on highways.[128]

Model Model

year

Fuel economy (MPGe)
Combined City Highway
RWD 60

60 kWh[129][130][131]

2013–15 95; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
94; 36 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
97; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
AWD 60D

60 kWh[132]

2016 104; 32 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
101; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
107; 31 kWh/100 mi
19 kWh/100 km
AWD 70D

70 kWh[129][131]

2015 101; 33 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
101; 33 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
102; 33 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
AWD 75D

75 kWh[132]

2016 103; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
102; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
105; 32 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
RWD 85

85 kWh[129][133]

2012–15 89; 38 kWh/100 mi
24 kWh/100 km
88; 38 kWh/100 mi
24 kWh/100 km
90; 37 kWh/100 mi
23 kWh/100 km
AWD 85D

85 kWh[134][129]

2014 89; 38 kWh/100 mi
24 kWh/100 km
86; 40 kWh/100 mi
25 kWh/100 km
94; 36 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
AWD 85D

85 kWh[134][129]

2015 100; 34 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
95; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
106; 32 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
AWD 90D

90 kWh[129][131]

2015 100; 34 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
95; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
106; 32 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
AWD 90D

90 kWh[132]

2016 103; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
101; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
107; 32 kWh/100 mi
20 kWh/100 km
AWD P85D

85 kWh[134][129]

2015 93; 36 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
89; 38 kWh/100 mi
24 kWh/100 km
98; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
AWD P90D

90 kWh[129][131]

2015 93; 36 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
89; 38 kWh/100 mi
24 kWh/100 km
98; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
AWD P90D

90 kWh[132][135]

2016 95; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
91; 37 kWh/100 mi
23 kWh/100 km
100; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
AWD P100D

100 kWh[132]

2016 98; 35 kWh/100 mi
22 kWh/100 km
92; 37 kWh/100 mi
23 kWh/100 km
105; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
AWD 100D

100 kWh[132]

2017 102; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
101; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km
102; 33 kWh/100 mi
21 kWh/100 km

Vehicle energy consumption is highly dependent on speed; the Model S requires 10 kW (14 hp) at 70 mph (110 km/h), and 31 kW (42 hp) at 100 mph (160 km/h).[136] Ancillary equipment (climate control, battery conditioning, etc.) may consume 15-25%, depending on outside temperature.[100]

Charger[edit]

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The charge port is located behind a door in the left taillight.

During charging, the charge port pulses green. The pulse frequency slows as the charge level approaches full. When charging is complete, the light turns solid green.[137] The Model S comes equipped with a different charger and connector in North America versus other markets.

The Mobile Connector allows charging at up to 72 amps[138] and includes adapters for connecting to a variety of electricity sources.[139] The Tesla Wall Connector is available for installation at a home or business, and it allows charging at up to 19.2 kW in North America and 22 kW in Europe (although charging the vehicle at 11.5 kW requires the High Amperage Charger option on the vehicle).[139][140]

Tesla supports the SAE J1772, Type 2, and CHAdeMO charging standards via adapters.[139][140] SAE J1772 and Type 2 adapters are included in the appropriate regions, while the CHAdeMO adapter is available for purchase.[141]

North America[edit]

Tesla Universal Mobile Connector (UMC), NEMA 5-15 Adapter (plugged in wall AC socket), NEMA 14-50 Adapter and SAE J1772to Tesla TSL02 Charging Connector Adapter

In North America, adapters for 120 volt NEMA 5-15 outlets, as well as an adapter for SAE J1772 charging stations, are included.[139] Other adapters including the popular NEMA 14-50 250V adapter can be purchased from Tesla for use with the Mobile Connector.

Charging times depend on the battery pack's state-of-charge, its capacity, the available voltage, and the available amperage. From a 120 volt/15 amp household outlet, the range increases by 3.75 miles (6 km) for every hour of charging. From a 10 kW, NEMA 14–50 240 V/50 A outlet (like those used by RVs or stoves), the charge rate is 28.75 miles (46 km) per hour. Using Tesla's 20 kW, 240 V High Power Wall Connector increases the rate to 57 miles (92 km) per hour if the car is configured with dual chargers (20 kW).[142]

Europe/Asia-Pacific[edit]

In Europe, adapters for CEE red 3P+N+E, CEE blue 2P+E, CEE 7, and BS 1363 are available (inclusion varies by country), and an adapter cable for connecting to chargers with a Type 2 connector is also included.[140][145]

  • Intermediate connector allowing the use of different adaptor plugs. Europe/Rest of World (left), North America (right).

Suspension[edit]

While some Model S's were built with a base, steel spring, suspension, the vast majority have a self-leveling, height-adjustableair suspension. This is accomplished via adjustable Bilstein shock absorbers controlled by the driver. The car lowers itself at highway speeds and can be set to a higher level to traverse steep driveways and rough terrain, mitigating the default low 6 in (150 mm) ground clearance and relatively long 116 in (2,900 mm) wheelbase.[147]

The suspension system evolved in "over-the-air" software updates. The height adjustment feature remembers locations where the driver has requested higher clearance and automatically adjusts each time the car returns to that location.[148]

The "Raven" update from early 2019 provided an enhanced "Smart Air Suspension" with automatic, dynamic suspension adjustments.[149]

Autopilot[edit]

Main article: Tesla Autopilot

See also: Autonomous car and Lane centering

Autopilot uses cameras, radar and ultrasound to detect road signs, lane markings, obstacles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic lights, and other vehicles. It includes adaptive cruise control and lane centering and supports semi-autonomous drive and parking capabilities.[150][151][152]

Instrument panel[edit]

Production dashboard with 12.3-inch (310 mm) main dashboard digital display (left) and central 17-inch (430 mm) touchscreencontrol panel (right)

The instrument panel is located directly in front of the driver. It includes a 12.3-inch (310 mm) liquid-crystal displayelectronic instrument cluster that indicates speed, charge level, estimated range and active gear, as well as navigation directions.

Autoshift[edit]

Introduced in mid-2021, the updated Model S Plaid and Long Range had no steering column-mounted shift stalk. Instead, it used cameras to infer whether to shift into forward or reverse. The driver could override that automatic selection using the center touchscreen or buttons on the center pedestal, directly beneath the cell phone inductive chargers. Earlier versions controlled transmission selection via a shift stalk on the right side of the steering column.

Touchscreen[edit]

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The 2021 update turned the center display from portrait to landscape layout.

The original touchscreen was a 17-inch (430 mm) multi-touch panel. divided into four areas. A top line displayed status symbols and provided shortcuts to Charging, HomeLink, Driver Profiles, vehicle information and Bluetooth. The second line provided access to apps including Media, Nav (driven by Google Maps, which was separate from the navigation on instrument panel), Energy, Web, Camera and Phone. The main viewing area displayed the (two) active apps, subdivided into upper and lower areas. (Most apps can be expanded to take up the entire area). At the bottom was access to various controls and settings for the vehicle such as doors, locks and lights as well as temperature controls and a secondary volume control.

The map display requires a constant Internet connection, limiting navigation in areas without service. Automatic navigation to charging stations is included.[153] The operating system is open-source Linux.[154]

Options[edit]

All versions of the Model S have the same body and normally seat five passengers. Other configurations were once available so as to allow for a third-row seat with two additional seats, for a total of seven passengers.

As of ~2016 or 2017, all seating materials were animal-free, made of synthetic fiber, with the steering wheel covers shifting to an animal-free material in late 2019 as well, making the cars entirely vegan.[155]

The original impetus for this years-long transition to animal-free interiors may have been two shareholder proposals presented at the 2015 Tesla shareholders meeting in which the substantial environmental damage caused by animal agriculture was highlighted, along with the obvious conflict with Tesla's stated mission.[156] Other luxury brands slowly began eschewing animal product interiors in the years that followed.

Warranty and maintenance[edit]

The Model S is covered by a 4-year, 50,000-mile (80,000 km) limited warranty[157] that includes all standard equipment (excluding tires).[158] The warranty can be extended by 4 years or 50,000 miles (80,000 km).[158] The battery and powertrain are covered by an 8-year, 150,000-mile (240,000 km) warranty.[159] Warranty coverage includes a complementary loaner car when service is required.[160] Annual vehicle inspection and maintenance is optional, and not required to maintain coverage.[160] The fee covers a complete inspection, tire alignment, new brake pads, hardware upgrades and other maintenance items. In California only, Tesla offers insurance.

Versions[edit]

Signature/Signature Performance[edit]

Tesla allocated its first 1,000 units to its Signature and Signature Performance limited edition configurations, equipped with the 85 kWh battery pack.[162][163]

A custom Model S was designed for the Oceanic Preservation Society in collaboration with Obscura Digital, and was used to project images of endangered animals to help educate the public about ongoing Holocene mass extinction, as featured in the 2015 documentary Racing Extinction.

60/60D/P85[edit]

The base Model S 60 was released with 60 kWh battery capacity and used a 270 kW (362 hp) and 441 N⋅m (325 ft⋅lb) motor.

Dual motor, AWD variations (60D) became available in 2014.

The Performance variant (P85) offered a three-phase, four-pole ACinduction 416 hp (310 kW) and 443 ft⋅lb (601 N⋅m) rear-mounted electric motor with copper rotor.[164]

The company claimed a drag coefficient of Cd=0.24,[165] lower than any other production car when released.[166] Independent measurement by Car and Driver in May 2014 exactly bore out Tesla's claim.[136]

70D[edit]

The 70D replaced the 60, 60D, and P85, offering all-wheel drive and an improved range of 240 miles (385 km).[167][168]

In January 2019, Tesla made the 100D the base version and discontinued the 75D version.[169]

85D[edit]

The 85D replaced the rear drive unit with a smaller motor, while a second motor of similar size was added to the front wheels. The resulting AWD car offered comparable power and acceleration to the rear wheel drive. The 85D offered a 2% (5-mile) range increase and 11% increase in top speed over the 85.[170]

P85D[edit]

Model S P85+ using regenerative brakingpower in excess of 60 kW. During regenerative braking, the power indicator is green.

The P85D was a dual-motor, all-wheel-drive vehicle. It had a governed top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h)[171] and it accelerated from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 3.2 seconds (tested to 3.1 seconds), under "Insane Mode", with 1g of acceleration.[171][172] Total output reached 345 kW (463 hp) despite the two motors because they did not give their maximum power at the same time.[173]

The high-power rear-drive unit was retained, while the additional front-drive motor increased power by about 50%, increasing acceleration and top speed.

P90D[edit]

The P90D had a top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h) and it could accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 2.8 seconds, despite the lower total motor power, in part due to the improved traction of the all-wheel drive powertrain. An optional "Ludicrous Mode" hardware package improved the 0 to 60 time to 2.8 seconds at 1.1g.[174][175][176]

The P90D combined a front axle power of 259 horsepower (193 kW) and rear axle power of 503 horsepower (375 kW) for a 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time of 2.8 seconds. The acceleration of the P90D can reach 1.1g, described by Tesla as "faster than falling".[58][177]

In June 2017, Tesla discontinued selling the 90 kWh battery pack option.[178]

P100D[edit]

The P100D outputs 439 kW (589 hp) and 1,248 N⋅m (920 lbf⋅ft) torque on a dynamometer.[179]

As of March 2017, P100D was the world's quickest production vehicle with a NHRA rolling start to 60 mph (97 km/h) in Motor Trend tests in 2.28 seconds (acceleration clock started after 0.26 seconds at 5.9 mph (9.5 km/h)) in Ludicrous mode.[180]

Owing to overheating issues (the radiator has no blower),[100] multiple uses of Ludicrous mode required rest periods to protect the battery.[181][182] According to Motor Trend, selecting the "Yes, bring it on!" option for maximum acceleration "initiates a process of battery and motor conditioning, wherein the battery temperature is raised slightly and the motors are cooled using the air-conditioning system. It usually takes just a few minutes, longer in extreme ambient temperatures or after repeated runs. You should expect to wait a minimum of 10 minutes in-between runs."[180]

It offered an EPA estimated range of 315 mi (507 km).[183] It was the first electric vehicle to have an EPA estimated range greater than 300 miles (485 km).[102][184]

Raven[edit]

In 2019, the Performance and Long Range Plus variants offered the "Raven" powertrain.[185] It included the permanent magnet synchronous reluctance motor from the Tesla Model 3 as the front motor.[185] The motor was more powerful and more efficient than its predecessor.[185] The Raven powertrain included a new adaptive air suspension.[185]

Palladium (Plaid)[edit]

The Palladium refresh was announced in January 2021 with initial deliveries in June 2021. The refresh included a new interior, new powertrain, suspension and thermal management amongst other improvements.[186] The refresh originally consisted of three models, the Long Range (LR), the Plaid, and the Plaid+, although the latter was cancelled shortly before deliveries began. The "Plaid" name is applied to the performance model and is a reference to the only speed faster than "Ludicrous" in the movie Spaceballs.[187]

The Plaid model includes one motor for the front wheels and one motor each for the two rear wheels (starting price $131,100).[188] At the core of the Plaid's performance are innovative new motors featuring a carbon-wrapped rotor to allow much higher motor RPM.[189] Musk claimed that this presented challenges, because carbon and copper (the rotor material) have different thermal expansion rates.[190] The Long Range model includes the front motor and a single rear motor (starting price $80k, but raised to $85k soon after deliveries began).[191]

The Palladium models have the lowest drag coefficient of any production car with Cd=0.208.[192] The new HVAC system uses a heat pump that Tesla claims provides 30% longer range and requires 50% less energy in cold weather conditions than the previous Model S.[193] Charging was claimed to increase by 187 miles (301 km) in 15 minutes (on a 250 kW Supercharger).[192] The interior features a non-circular "yoke" steering wheel, a landscape-oriented center video screen, a video screen for the back seat, increased headroom and legroom, particularly in the rear seat area, lower noise via acoustic glass, a new, customizable user interface, and improved gaming (via the AMD RDNA 2 GPU).[192][194] The company estimated that deliveries will reach 1000/week in Q3 of 2021.[191]

The Plaid has 1,020 horsepower (760 kW) and 1,050 pound-feet (1,420 N⋅m) of torque. It was independently tested by Motor Trend to go 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 2.07 seconds (1.98 on a prepped drag strip) and cover a quarter-mile (400 m) in 9.34 seconds at 152.2 mph (244.9 km/h).[195] Tesla claims it will reach a 200 mph (320 km/h) top speed.[191]

Charging[edit]

Taxi Model S, charging in Moscow

Home charging[edit]

Tesla recommends overnight charging at home as the primary method of charging. In general, the convenience of plugging in overnight outweighs the far longer charging interval.

Destination charging[edit]

The Tesla Destination charging network is a network of businesses that have installed Tesla Wall Connectors. These units are provided to the businesses by Tesla for free or at a discounted price. The business is responsible for the cost of electricity.[196] Not all destination chargers are available to the public, as some businesses limit them to customers, employees, or residents only.[197]

Tesla Superchargers[edit]

Main article: Tesla Supercharger

Tesla operates a global network of 480-volt charging stations. The Tesla network is usable only by Tesla vehicles though there are discussions to allow other EVs to use it in some locations such as Sweden.[198] Supercharging hardware is standard on all new vehicles and most earlier editions.[42][199][200] The Supercharger is a DC rapid-charging station that provides up to 250 kW of power, adding up to 15 mi (24 km) per minute.[196]

Battery swapping[edit]

Tesla originally designed the Model S to allow fast battery swapping, which also facilitated vehicle assembly.[201] In 2013, Tesla demonstrated a battery swap operation taking around 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to refill an empty gas tank.[202][203] Tesla originally planned to support widespread battery swapping, but supposedly abandoned the plan due to perceived lack of interest by customers.[204] Tesla has been accused of gaming the California Air Resources Board system for zero-emission vehicle credits by launching the "battery swap" program that was never made available to the public.[205][206] Tesla announced in 2020 that it would integrate the batteries into the body to increase strength and reduce weight and cost.[207]

Sales and markets[edit]

U.S. deliveries began June 2012.[12] Tesla reported 520 reservations for the Model S during the first week they were available[208] and by December 2012, a total 15,000 net reservations (after deliveries and cancellations) had been received by year-end.[209]

The special edition Model S Signature model was sold out before deliveries began in June 2012, and according to Tesla all models were sold out for that year shortly after.[210][211] A total of 2,650 cars were delivered in North America in 2012.[212]

Tesla delivered 50,658 Model S/X units in 2015.[213][214] Tesla sold more than 50,000 Model S cars globally in 2016, making it the world's top selling plug-in electric that year.[215] In 2017, it became only the second EV to sell more than 200,000 units behind the Nissan Leaf.

The Model S was released in Europe in early August 2013, and the first deliveries took place in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherland.[216] By November 2013, the Model S was on sale in 20 countries.[217] By the end of 2013, Norway and Switzerland became the company's largest per capita sales markets.[218]

Retail deliveries in China began in April 2014.[219] The right-hand-drive model was released in the UK in June 2014,[220] followed by Hong Kong in July 2014[221] and Japan in September 2014.[222] Deliveries in Australia began in December 2014.[223]

The Model S ranked as the world's second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Nissan Leaf.[224] About 55% of deliveries went to North America, 30% to Europe, and 15% to the Asia-Pacific market.[225]

As of June 2015[update], the Model S was sold in 30 countries.[226] The Model S was the world's best-selling plug-in electric car in 2015, ahead of the Nissan Leaf (about 43,000 units).[214][227]

2016-2020[edit]

The Model S was the world's top selling plug-in car for the second year running.[23][24] The Model S rank fell to second place after the BAIC EC-Seriescity car, which sold over 78,000 units in China.[18]

The Model S continued to rank as the second most-sold electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf.[18][19][20][21] As of December 2018[update], cumulative global sales totaled about 263,504 units.[18][19][20][21][228]

Sales by country[edit]

Country Cumulative

sales

% of global

sales[a]

2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
USA[229][22][230][231][232]~163,201 55.9% 14,425[233]29,959 26,500 29,156 25,202 16,689 ~18,650 ~2,620
China[234][235][236]11,858[b][c][c][c]6,334 3,025[b]2,499N/AN/A
Norway[237][238][239][240][241][242]20,639 7.4% 1,181 3,633 3,712 2,051 4,039 4,040 1,983N/A
Netherlands[243][244][245][246][247][248]13,839 5.3% 5,633 2,051 1,693 1,805 1,465 1,192N/A
Canada[249]6,731 3.2% 1,675 1,466 2,010 847 638 95
Germany[107][250][251][252][253][254]7,551 2.9% 1,248 2,241 1,474 1,582 815 191N/A
UK[255][256][257][258]9,300[d]2.9% 1,756 2,518 2,367 1,389 698N/AN/A
Switzerland [e][259]4,695 2.2% 1,131 1,299 1,556 496 213N/A
Denmark[260][261][262]3,432 1.6% 46 78 2,736 460 112N/A
Sweden[263][264][265][266][267]3,788 1.4% 883 800 838 996 266 5N/A
France[268][269][270][271]3,455 1.3% 749 850 785 708 328 35N/A
Belgium[272][273][274][275][276]3,358 1.3% 535 659 675 820 521 148N/A
Hong Kong[277]2,221[f]1.0% [c][c]2,221N/AN/AN/A
Austria[278][279][280][281]1,835 0.9% 584 575 492 136 48N/A
Australia[282][283]~1,319 0.6% [c][c]~1,250 69[g]N/AN/AN/A
Italy[284][285]662 0.3% 264 218 120 52 8N/A
Global[18][19][20][21][228]263,504 50,630[19][20][21][228]54,715[18]50,931[23]50,446[230][227]31,655[224]22,477[286]~2,650[209]
  1. ^Percentage of global sales by country, inception through December 2019.
  2. ^ abChinese market sales in 2015 only through September.
  3. ^ abcdefgSales figures not available
  4. ^UK registrations at the end of June 2019 (not cumulative sales).
  5. ^Includes registrations in Liechtenstein.
  6. ^Hong Kong sales for 2015 only.
  7. ^Only includes registrations in New South Wales and Victoria.

Asia/Pacific[edit]

The first nine Australian units were delivered in Sydney on December 9, 2014. Tesla opened its first store and service centre in St Leonards, and its first Supercharger station at Pyrmont in December 2014.[288][289]

The Model S was the top selling all-electric car in the country for the first quarter of 2015.[290]

The first Chinese deliveries took place on April 22, 2014.[219] The standard equipment was the same as the European version, with larger back seats because the car was expected to be driven by a chauffeur.[291]

By mid-2018, China ranked as Tesla’s second largest market.[292]

Sales began in Hong Kong in July 2014.[221]

Europe[edit]

First European deliveries were at Tesla's Oslostore in August 2013.

European retail deliveries began in August 2013, in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherlands.[216] Sales rose most rapidly in Norway. The Model S topped the European luxury car segment in 2015, ahead of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (14,990), the traditional leader.[293]

In April 2014 the Schiphol Group announced that three companies were selected to provide all-electric taxi service in Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.[294]

Sales in 2015 totaled 1,805 units,[245] and declined to 1,693 in 2016.[246] As of October 2016[update], combined registrations of the Model S (5,681) and the Model X (250) represented 48.6% of the 12,196 all-electric cars on Dutch roads at the end of that month.[295] The Model S was the all-time top selling all-electric car in the Netherlands with 12,394 cars registered at the end of March 2021, however it has since been overtaken by the Tesla Model 3, with 38,745 cars registered in March 2021.[296]

Europe's first delivery took place in Oslo on August 7, 2013.[297] By the end of August, Europe's first six charging stations opened, in Lyngdal, Aurland, Dombås, Gol, Sundebru and Lillehammer.[298]

North America[edit]

The world's first delivery took place on June 1, 2012 in California, to a Tesla board member, while formal deliveries to the public began at a large ceremony on June 22, 2013. [299]

The first Model S sedans were delivered in Canada in December 2012.[249]

Retail sales began in Mexico City in December 2015. Initially, no Supercharger stations are available in the country.[300]

Personalized delivery of Model S

Owners are overwhelmingly male and over 45 years old.[301]

Retail sales model[edit]

Main article: Tesla US dealership disputes

Tesla sells its cars directly to consumers without a dealer network, as other manufacturers have done and as many states require by legislation. In support of its approach, the company fought legal and legislative battles in Ohio, New Jersey, New York and other states.[302][303] The Tesla direct sales model was permitted in 22 states as of March 2015.[304][305] In other states the Tesla salesperson is not allowed to discuss prices, and the ultimate sale must be made online.[306][307]

Safety[edit]

Tesla made many claims about the safety of its vehicles, encompassing vehicle structure and driver assist software.

Features[edit]

In 2014, the Model S had a 5-star safety rating from both Euro NCAP and the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).[308][309] At that time, only two other cars had earned the same recognition since 2011 (when the NHTSA introduced its latest rating scheme).[310]

However, in July 2017, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) found that during front crash tests, the Model S safety belts let the driver's torso move too far forward, resulting in the head striking the steering wheel hard through the airbag. This problem was already pointed out in one of the IIHS's earliers tests, to which Tesla responded they would improve their safety belt design, which, according to the IIHS's latest tests, has not been done. The IIHS also gave the Model S the worst possible rating for its headlights.[315] The report caused Tesla to lose 6.4% of its stock value.[314]

Incidents[edit]

Battery fire[edit]

See also: Tesla Model S fire incidents

The first widely reported fire occurred several minutes after the vehicle hit metal debris on the Washington State Route 167 highway on October 1, 2013.[316] The driver "was able to exit the highway as instructed by the onboard alert system, bring the car to a stop and depart the vehicle without injury".[317] He then contacted authorities and, while awaiting their arrival, smoke began coming out the front of the vehicle. The driver stated that he hit something while exiting the HOV lane.[316][318][319] Tesla stated that the fire was caused by the "direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 battery modules", and that by design, the modules were separated by firewalls, limiting the fire to "a small section in the front of the vehicle".[316]

The module was evidently punctured by a "curved section" that fell off a truck and was recovered near the accident. Tesla stated that the debris punched a 3-inch (76 mm) diameter hole through the .25-inch (6.4 mm) armor plate under the vehicle, applying force of some 25 tons. Built-in vents directed the flames away from the vehicle so that the fire did not enter the passenger compartment. According to Tesla, the firefighters followed standard procedure; using water to extinguish the fire was correct,[320] however, puncturing the metal firewall to gain access to the fire also allowed the flames to spread to the front trunk.[317] Tesla also stated that because the battery pack contains "only about 10% of the energy contained in a gasoline tank", the effective combustion potential of a single module is only about 1% that of a conventional vehicle.[317]

NHTSA reported, "After reviewing all available data, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has not found evidence at this time that would indicate the recent battery fire involving a Tesla Model S was the result of a vehicle safety defect or noncompliance with federal safety standards."[321] The following month, the NHTSA opened a preliminary evaluation to determine "the potential risks associated with undercarriage strikes on model year 2013 Tesla Model S vehicles".[322][323] On March 28, 2014, NHTSA closed its investigation, claiming that the (new) titanium underbody shield and aluminum deflector plates, along with increased ground clearance, "should reduce both the frequency of underbody strikes and the resultant fire risk".[324]

Subsequent fires[edit]

On November 6, 2013, a fire broke out after a Model S struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.[325] The incidents led Tesla to extend its warranty to cover fire damage and to apply a software update to increase ground clearance when operating at highway speed.[322][326]

Another fire took place in Toronto, Canada, in February 2014. The Model S was parked in a garage and was not charging when the fire started. The origin of the fire is undetermined.[327] According to Tesla "in this particular case, we don't yet know the precise cause, but have definitively determined that it did not originate in the battery, the charging system, the adapter or the electrical receptacle, as these components were untouched by the fire".[328]

Starting with vehicle bodies manufactured as of 6 March 2014[update], all units were outfitted with a triple underbody shield. Existing cars were retrofitted upon request or as part of routine service.[329][330]

On January 1, 2016, a 2014 Model S caught fire while supercharging unsupervised in Brokelandsheia, Norway. The vehicle was destroyed but nobody was injured.[331][332][333] The fire was slow, and the owner had time to unplug the car and retrieve possessions.[334] An investigation by the Norwegian Accident Investigation Board (AIBN) indicated that the fire originated in the car, but was otherwise inconclusive.[335] In March 2016, Tesla stated that their own investigation into the incident concluded that the fire was caused by a short circuit in the vehicle's distribution box, but that the amount of damage prevented them from determining the exact cause.[334] Tesla stated that the Supercharger detected the short circuit and deactivated, and a future Model S software update would stop the vehicle from charging if a short circuit is detected.[336]

NTSB stated that Teslas are not more prone to fires than other vehicles.[337]

First fatal accident[edit]

The first known fatal accident when Autopilot was active occurred in Williston, Florida on May 7, 2016. In June 2016, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) opened a formal investigation into the accident, working with the Florida Highway Patrol. According to NHTSA, preliminary reports indicate the crash occurred when a tractor-trailer made a left turn in front of the Tesla at an intersection on a non-controlled access highway, and the driver and the car failed to apply the brakes.[338][339][340] NHTSA's preliminary evaluation examined the design and performance of automated driving systems, which involved an estimated 25,000 cars.[341]

According to Tesla, "neither autopilot nor the driver noticed the white side of the tractor-trailer against a brightly lit sky, so the brake was not applied." The car attempted to drive full speed under the trailer, "with the bottom of the trailer impacting the windshield of the Model S." Tesla also stated that this was Tesla's first known Autopilot-related death in over 130 million miles (208 million km) driven by its customers while Autopilot was activated. According to Tesla a fatality occurred every 94 million miles (150 million km) among all type of vehicles in the U.S.[338][339][342]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_Model_S

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